ZINKOV Print

Coat of arms of Zinkiv ALTERNATE NAMES: ZIN'KIV and Зіньків  [UKR], ZIN'KOV and Зиньков [RUS], ZINKOV and זינקעוו [YID], ZIŃKÓW [POL]

49°05' N, 27°04' E, 37 miles NE of Kamyanets-Podilskyy, 23 miles S of Khmelnytskyy, 20 miles NNW of Nova Ushytsya.. Jewish population: 3,719 (in 1897), 2,248 (in 1939).

Russian Source with photos: "Zinka - village Vinkovetsky region Khmelnitsky region of Ukraine. Until 1923 Zinkov - Letychiv county town of Podolia. Earliest mention of Zin'kova found in literacy Vladislav II Jagiello of 1404 about granting Kamenets headman Peter Shafrantsu vast lands along the upper reaches Ushitza among them - settlements Zinkovtsy. In 1430, these lands were in possession of the first governors of the Podolsk Peter Odrovonzha. At the top you ¬ sokogo hill surrounded by the river and a deep ravine, Odrovonzh built triangular in plan with a high castle ramparts and bastions at the corners. Within its walls inhabitants of a settlement, coming down from the castle to the broad river valley Ushitza, fled from the frequent raids of the Crimean Tatars. Zin'kova In 1444 was granted the status of a city, and in 1458 the governor released its residents for 12 years from the payment of various taxes, levies and , thereby contributing to the speedy restoration of Zin-kov, once again devastated by Tatars. Odrovonzh gave its residents the privileges based on Magdeburg law and allowed them to collect sales taxes, which are prescribed to use the needs of town. Conceived in turn Zinkov trading city, the governor recommended townspeople arrange next to City Hall marketplace and build on it retail shops. Located in the heart of Podolia Zinkov subjected to violent attacks Tatars and Turks in 1474, 1476, 1516 and 1524 years. The enemy never been able to master lock, but every time ruined and burned houses, killed and led away captive citizens. For the speedy elimination of the economic consequences of these devastations owner in town again in 1530 its inhabitants freed from taxes.Zinkovskaya first mention of Jews relates to 1526 Perhaps one of the first Jewish families were displaced from the nearest town moat, utterly ruined by the Tartars in 1452 first g ., and then - in 1524 and 1528 years. According to financial records 1578 poll tax from the Jews was the most significant source of income of the owner village. At 1566g. Polish King Sigismund Augustus confirmed all the privileges conferred upon the city before and decided to hold it in two annual fairs and weekly markets. According to the inventory in 1578, in Zin'kova was 275 houses, that is about one and a half thousand people. Most townspeople diluted gardens and farmed, hunting and fishing equipment: 1583 registered a total of 14 artisans. At the end of the XVI century. Zinkov became the property tycoons Sinyavsky richest landowners Podolia. Zinkov summer of 1648, the rebels captured and plundered by the Cossacks, was among the first victims of the Khmelnytsky. According to the contract Zbarouski 1649 Zinkov retained its former owners. But even after the conclusion of peace he attacked Cossack and Tatar troops, and in 1651 was again devastated and burned by the Cossacks, and the remnants of the Polish and Jewish populations were destroyed. French diplomat Werdum, passing in 1671 through Zinkov, made ​​the following entry: "From the city's nothing left but pieces of walls that once surrounded it, but the ruins of the two cathedrals. Castle, occupying the top, also was destroyed, despite the very strong construction. " Turks, Podolia received in 1672, thoroughly rebuilt and strengthened Zinkovskiy castle. In 1699, after the departure of the Turks, the village has returned to his former Polish owners. In 1702 it devastated the Cossacks, and again the victims were settled here in Turks Jews. During the first decades of the XVIII century. Zinkov revived from ruins and largely changed its appearance. Primarily SINYAVSKY continued efforts to strengthen the castle: it was surrounded by a moat, which was spanned by a drawbridge and built at the entrance to the village stone gate. Worrying about the safety of residents, Sinyavskiy growing city surrounded by a stone wall places, places - palisade. settled in town again Jews. To live, they were given the hill next to the castle, on the side opposite the old town. This settlement became known as the "new" city, in contrast to the "old" coming down from the castle hill in the river valley. The "new" town you grew ¬ at the crossroads, marching from the castle to Zinkovskaya Letichev and from Vinkovtsy towards Yarmolintsy shtetl. These intersect at right angles and identified road planning structure of the settlement."New", the city had a distinct commercial character. At the intersection Jews built stores and shops surrounded the so-created marketplace. Next to her well was dug (the only "new" town), and at the entrance to the town from the right of the road Vinkovtsy formed cattle market. By 1730 the main streets of the "new" town was built 43 Jewish houses, among them - 10 stores. Consumed by Cossacks in 1702, the Jewish community was revived from nothingness (Polish household equipment 1730 KJV ¬ Mina only one Jew, who lived in the village 28 years, a few more people arrived here in 1710 - 1712), and again there was only 1723 - 1726 gg. In these times of almost all Jewish families engaged in fishing distillery and brewery.Having survived in 1734 arranged haidamaks pogrom Zin'kova Jewish community continues to grow and build up the territory of the "new" city. Apparently, then, in the first half of the XVIII century., in the center of town, not far from the market square, was built by the Great Synagogue. Its building is a three-nave high rectangular basilica, whose walls are cut four rows of windows on the east and west facades and three rows - on the north and south. Windows each tier had a different shape and size, large arched windows of the first floor were crowned with pediments. Vertical pilasters and a double cornice at the second tier of windows on the facade ¬ rizontali dismembered. Corners of the southern facade were reinforced by powerful buttresses, southwest corner of the building was maintained mighty flying buttresses. To the main entrance to the western facade were stone steps, entrance doorway crowned inscription in a rectangular frame. The building was covered with a hipped roof. At the center of the prayer hall of the Great Synagogue was spacious bimah carved wood on a stone plinth. Along the vertical axis of the east wall of floor-to-four-story barrel vault raised wooden Aron Kodesh, decorated with carvings, symbolic images and figures of animals and birds, gold and silver painted decoration. At the level of the second tier of windows central hall located ladies gallery. Judging by the photos, this synagogue (destroyed in World War II) was the largest in Podolia. During the second half of the XVIII century.Zinkov became an important economic hub in the complex Podolsk Czartoryski estates: in Zinkovskiy key included 10 villages and 7 or Farm. Population census in 1765 found 522 Zin'kova Jew. As registered auditors in the Jewish population participated Rabbi p. Hirsch's son Isaac, "quarterly" Isaac Zolkiewski and "schoolboy" Srol (Yisrael) Ershovich. In 1784 it was 148 in Zin'kova homeowners Jews overall number of homeowners - 305 people. Jews did, for the most part, crafts and trade, a significant source of income for many families was also beer and vodka. Among the Jews were renters and writhes and mills. In 1793, after the Second Partition of Poland, Zinkov passed to Russia with the status of county town.Since 1796 Zinkov - privately place Letychiv county Podolia. In 1843, the owner of the town sold it to the state treasury. In the XIX century. Zin'kova former appearance has changed markedly. Having lost its defensive significance, dilapidated and destroyed the castle. In 1870, there were two more towers and its entrance gate, Emblazoned SINYAVSKY, but in the 1880s. castle was sold to a certain person of the peasants, who dismantled its ruins, including the foundation, building-stone and brought it. Only in the southeastern corner of the fortress are preserved cellars in which Jews staged glaciers. The landscape is now dominated by the very high Jewish town synagogue, one-and two-storey stone ¬ or mud houses roofed with flat tiles. The township was located on a hill, and attributed to him peasant settlements - in the river valley. Due to the spatial isolation and, therefore, some of the Jewish shtetl independence from external environment, here there was a special psychological atmosphere conducive to the development of Jewish life to the extent that conditions permit "Pale of Settlement." It seems that this atmosphere and fed such diverse but deep national phenomenon as traditional upbringing, Zinkovskiy Hasidism, Jewish self-defense, the Zionist movement ... It is no accident of the famous Hasidic Tzaddik Medzebozh p. Yitzchak Meir eshel (1775-1855), son of the famous rabbi-Apter (born Abraham Ioshua eshelya) elected Zinkov his residence. Since moving here p. Yitzhak Meir in 1825 town became one of the most attractive Hasidic centers in Podolia. Spiritual leader of hundreds, if not thousands of Hasidim, p. Yitzchak Meir became the founder of the dynasty Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim. "His life is a chain of good deeds" - talked about him contemporaries. story: Rabbi decided to settle in Zin'kova because here on the way to the synagogue or in the cemetery it does not interfere with focus of the church or the church - a mandatory accessory central square of any other town. Tzaddikim dynasty continued p. Meshulam Zusia son p. Yitzchak Meir (1814-1866). He published a book of his grandfather "Oev Israel," wrote the preface to it, and published his poetic writings, sermons and parables. Great influence among the Jews also used the Podolsk district son. Meshulam Zusii p. Menachem Chaim (d. 1894) and his grandchildren p. Eshel Moshe (Rabbi Moyshele, died in 1923) and p.Pinchas eshel (Rabbi Pinhasl, died in 1916). Thanks to authority Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim place until the Soviet era remains one of the most influential in Podolia Hasidic centers. At the beginning of the 1930s. lived here p. Chaim Menachem eshel son p. Pinchas (later he moved to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Bnei Brak.) the beginning of XX century. in the town had two Hasidic court belonging to two brothers - p. Moshe and p. Pinchas. Their ongoing rivalry has split into two camps of Jews - the adherents of one or another rabbi (that did not stop one of the sons of r. Moshe marry the daughter p. Pinchas.) The absence of peace between the Tzaddik was not reflected, however, in exceptional respect that both used not only in Zin'kova, but throughout the hem. Their "neighborhood" were always open to Jews in need of advice, and during the holidays they crowded the Hasidim, collected from all around. At the beginning of XX century. number of Jewish community Zin'kova exceeded 2,000, continuing to grow in the coming decades. On holidays, when the township gathered many followers Tzaddikim, the number of Jews here almost doubled. Most of the guests stayed in pomestitelnyh visiting homes. Zin'kova Jews existed mainly on income from trading on the market in a small-town market days (Tuesdays) and during fairs. Were here and wholesalers of grain and fruit, had a long business relationship with the surrounding landowners and tenants forests, mills, cramps, taverns, owners of bakeries, shops and stores and warehouses. Zinkovskaya of Jews was not rich, but almost all of them lived in their own homes and receive regular income from the lucrative trade or craft.Hebrews owned brewery Fuchs pharmacy Vurshtatmana (then - Tsinberg), photo studio Schweiger, one of the three water mills (Merchant) , development of phosphorite - mine in the village of steep-Borodintsy Zinkovskaya parish (Halperin). Most of the inhabitants were craftsmen: blacksmiths, tinsmiths, Wainwright, coopers, furriers, tailors, shoemakers, and others. Mention and jars were regularly supplied with water from a single well in the center of town residents most of ¬ Dalen his quarters. Chassidic Tzaddikim addition, there were other religious authorities, which could either be adjacent to one of two camps, or maintain their independence from them ¬ dependence . In the town was 7 kloyzov and prayer houses, among them kloyz p. Altera Katsenelenbogen old kloyz and Beit Midrash (near the Great Synagogue), the synagogue artisans (on the northeastern outskirts) and others. But during the holidays usually Jews gathered in the Great Synagogue, which zinkovtsy called "Movshivka." Going into the synagogue, Jews dressed, as was the custom then Zin'kova, black suits and long coats, belts black belts, head put on a black hat, "half-cylinders." In the Great Synagogue prayer led famous in the whole district cantor Itzik-Hazan. In crowded on Yom Kippur holiday synagogue came to listen to "Kol Nidre" performed by the famous cantor even representatives of the Catholic and Orthodox faiths. Honored guests were seated at the eastern wall, some of them knew Hebrew and followed by prayer. Despite the fact that most of the Hasidic village did not support Zionism, they were close to young people, educated in the national spirit. Disapproving agitation Zionists Tzaddikim in fact did not hinder their activities. The question: "Why not admit Theodor Herzl Messiah?" P. Moses replied: "It's hard to imagine a concrete embodiment of the Messiah, although it is possible that he may appear in the image of the prophet. Written: "... and the whole earth will be filled with the knowledge" that is, the Messiah shall all men without exception. Those "Mashiach", which were still, to be credible only in the part of the people, but the other part did not believe in them and in the end they did not bring redemption, but on the contrary, caused enormous damage. We should perform mitzvot with diligence and go their own way, so that people won the Messiah, or, otherwise, he falls so low that the Messiah will have to come. " Before the "fall of Tsarism" in Zin'kova was not a Zionist organization, but trends of the new movement were felt here long before the February Revolution of 1917 with interest of residents react to the move and the decisions of the First Zionist Congress, deeply troubled when he died, Theodor Herzl, and bringing donations for the Jews of Eretz Yisrael, collectors asked to tell about life in this country . Actually Zionist activity began with the advent of David and Samuel Friedman Blipdera. They are at the beginning of the First World War along with their families were expelled from the border goose settled in Zin'kova. The first thing fellow Zionists organized group study of Hebrew and the new Hebrew literature (in Hebrew family Blinder was everyday language).After the February Revolution, they founded the organization "Thiya" and Zionist club. The movement's leaders actively involved in "Thiyu" new members to care about the representation of the Zionists in community and public institutions, the leadership of the Jewish school, created after the revolution. Boys and girls, supporters of Zionism, collected a library of books in Hebrew, created a drama studio and a children's society "Pirhey Zion." In 1919, the Zionists purchased participating ¬ ground current, which comprehended the alphabet agriculture, preparing for repatriation. Their teachers were peasants from the surrounding villages. In November 1920, the first group of 17 boys and two girls crossed the Polish border and went to Eretz Yisrael. Within the near ¬ Shih 6 years of aliyah Zin'kova not interrupted, then filled with constantly waning. To spread his ideas Zionists often held public lectures, meetings and debates. Opponents of "bourgeois" movement advocated proletarian figures Levi Carpenter, leader of the local branch of a society "ka ka Hapoel Zion" and Abramovich, the head of the Bund. Typically, these meetings attracted multi-. set of people were in the club of the fire brigade, which was in the center of town, next to the public garden, and has already become the main place of public entertainment. Curiously, despite the paucity in Zin'kova Jewish proletariat, the labor movement here was represented by several parties, the largest of which was the Bund. surge of political activity in the town occurred during the years of the Civil War, accompanied by government reshuffle, looting and riots. But the political debate between representatives of various Jewish political parties and movements do not interfere with their unity in the face of a common enemy. For protection against the many gangs and prevent possible unrest in Zin'kova in 1918 was created armed Jewish self-defense. Her squad were young people belonging to different parties, the detachment commander became a Zionist Nahum Ioshpe. First Jewish self-defense in Zin'kova appeared during the pogrom wave in 1905, when the mayhem started Russian immigrants from the neighboring village Petrash. Then armed Jews first, and not only melee weapons, made ​​Zinkovskaya blacksmiths, but also rifles and pistols. that this atmosphere and fed such diverse but deep national phenomenon as traditional upbringing, Zinkovskiy Hasidism, Jewish self-defense, the Zionist movement ... It is no accident of the famous Hasidic Tzaddik Medzebozh p. Yitzchak Meir eshel (1775-1855), son of the famous rabbi-Apter (born Abraham Ioshua eshelya) elected Zinkov his residence. Since moving here p. Yitzhak Meir in 1825 town became one of the most attractive Hasidic centers in Podolia. Spiritual leader of hundreds, if not thousands of Hasidim, p. Yitzchak Meir became the founder of the dynasty Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim. "His life is a chain of good deeds" - talked about him contemporaries.story: Rabbi decided to settle in Zin'kova because here on the way to the synagogue or in the cemetery it does not interfere with focus of the church or the church - a mandatory accessory central square of any other town. Tzaddikim dynasty continued p. Meshulam Zusia son p. Yitzchak Meir (1814-1866). He published a book of his grandfather "Oev Israel," wrote the preface to it, and published his poetic writings, sermons and parables. Great influence among the Jews also used the Podolsk district son. Meshulam Zusii p. Menachem Chaim (d. 1894) and his grandchildren p. Eshel Moshe (Rabbi Moyshele, died in 1923) and p.Pinchas eshel (Rabbi Pinhasl, died in 1916). Thanks to authority Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim place until the Soviet era remains one of the most influential in Podolia Hasidic centers. At the beginning of the 1930s. lived here p. Chaim Menachem eshel son p. Pinchas (later he moved to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Bnei Brak.) the beginning of XX century. in the town had two Hasidic court belonging to two brothers - p. Moshe and p. Pinchas. Their ongoing rivalry has split into two camps of Jews - the adherents of one or another rabbi (that did not stop one of the sons of r. Moshe marry the daughter p. Pinchas.) The absence of peace between the Tzaddik was not reflected, however, in exceptional respect that both used not only in Zin'kova, but throughout the hem. Their "neighborhood" were always open to Jews in need of advice, and during the holidays they crowded the Hasidim, collected from all around. At the beginning of XX century. number of Jewish community Zin'kova exceeded 2,000, continuing to grow in the coming decades. On holidays, when the township gathered many followers Tzaddikim, the number of Jews here almost doubled. Most of the guests stayed in pomestitelnyh visiting homes. Zin'kova Jews existed mainly on income from trading on the market in a small-town market days (Tuesdays) and during fairs. Were here and wholesalers of grain and fruit, had a long business relationship with the surrounding landowners and tenants forests, mills, cramps, taverns, owners of bakeries, shops and stores and warehouses. Zinkovskaya of Jews was not rich, but almost all of them lived in their own homes and receive regular income from the lucrative trade or craft.Hebrews owned brewery Fuchs pharmacy Vurshtatmana (then - Tsinberg), photo studio Schweiger, one of the three water mills (Merchant) , development of phosphorite - mine in the village of steep-Borodintsy Zinkovskaya parish (Halperin). Most of the inhabitants were craftsmen: blacksmiths, tinsmiths, Wainwright, coopers, furriers, tailors, shoemakers, and others. Mention and jars were regularly supplied with water from a single well in the center of town residents most of ¬ Dalen his quarters. Chassidic Tzaddikim addition, there were other religious authorities, which could either be adjacent to one of two camps, or maintain their independence from them ¬ dependence . In the town was 7 kloyzov and prayer houses, among them kloyz p. Altera Katsenelenbogen old kloyz and Beit Midrash (near the Great Synagogue), the synagogue artisans (on the northeastern outskirts) and others. But during the holidays usually Jews gathered in the Great Synagogue, which zinkovtsy called "Movshivka." Going into the synagogue, Jews dressed, as was the custom then Zin'kova, black suits and long coats, belts black belts, head put on a black hat, "half-cylinders." In the Great Synagogue prayer led famous in the whole district cantor Itzik-Hazan. In crowded on Yom Kippur holiday synagogue came to listen to "Kol Nidre" performed by the famous cantor even representatives of the Catholic and Orthodox faiths. Honored guests were seated at the eastern wall, some of them knew Hebrew and followed by prayer. Despite the fact that most of the Hasidic village did not support Zionism, they were close to young people, educated in the national spirit. Disapproving agitation Zionists Tzaddikim in fact did not hinder their activities. The question: "Why not admit Theodor Herzl Messiah?" P. Moses replied: "It's hard to imagine a concrete embodiment of the Messiah, although it is possible that he may appear in the image of the prophet. Written: "... and the whole earth will be filled with the knowledge" that is, the Messiah shall all men without exception. Those "Mashiach", which were still, to be credible only in the part of the people, but the other part did not believe in them and in the end they did not bring redemption, but on the contrary, caused enormous damage. We should perform mitzvot with diligence and go their own way, so that people won the Messiah, or, otherwise, he falls so low that the Messiah will have to come. " Before the "fall of Tsarism" in Zin'kova was not a Zionist organization, but trends of the new movement were felt here long before the February Revolution of 1917 with interest of residents react to the move and the decisions of the First Zionist Congress, deeply troubled when he died, Theodor Herzl, and bringing donations for the Jews of Eretz Yisrael, collectors asked to tell about life in this country . Actually Zionist activity began with the advent of David and Samuel Friedman Blipdera. They are at the beginning of the First World War along with their families were expelled from the border goose settled in Zin'kova. The first thing fellow Zionists organized group study of Hebrew and the new Hebrew literature (in Hebrew family Blinder was everyday language).After the February Revolution, they founded the organization "Thiya" and Zionist club. The movement's leaders actively involved in "Thiyu" new members to care about the representation of the Zionists in community and public institutions, the leadership of the Jewish school, created after the revolution. Boys and girls, supporters of Zionism, collected a library of books in Hebrew, created a drama studio and a children's society "Pirhey Zion." In 1919, the Zionists purchased participating ¬ ground current, which comprehended the alphabet agriculture, preparing for repatriation. Their teachers were peasants from the surrounding villages. In November 1920, the first group of 17 boys and two girls crossed the Polish border and went to Eretz Yisrael. Within the near ¬ Shih 6 years of aliyah Zin'kova not interrupted, then filled with constantly waning. To spread his ideas Zionists often held public lectures, meetings and debates. Opponents of "bourgeois" movement advocated proletarian figures Levi Carpenter, leader of the local branch of a society "ka ka Hapoel Zion" and Abramovich, the head of the Bund. Typically, these meetings attracted multi-. set of people were in the club of the fire brigade, which was in the center of town, next to the public garden, and has already become the main place of public entertainment. Curiously, despite the paucity in Zin'kova Jewish proletariat, the labor movement here was represented by several parties, the largest of which was the Bund. surge of political activity in the town occurred during the years of the Civil War, accompanied by government reshuffle, looting and riots. But the political debate between representatives of various Jewish political parties and movements do not interfere with their unity in the face of a common enemy. For protection against the many gangs and prevent possible unrest in Zin'kova in 1918 was created armed Jewish self-defense. Her squad were young people belonging to different parties, the detachment commander became a Zionist Nahum Ioshpe. First Jewish self-defense in Zin'kova appeared during the pogrom wave in 1905, when the mayhem started Russian immigrants from the neighboring village Petrash. Then armed Jews first, and not only melee weapons, made ​​Zinkovskaya blacksmiths, but also rifles and pistols. Perhaps it is the willingness of Jews to self-defense and a warning sent thugs, prevented violence.After the October Revolution of 1917 had ceased to exist too, however, a reliable small-town law enforcement service in the face of the police officer and bailiff. The reason for the creation of the Jewish self-defense, this time was the attack on the town in 1918 has left the remains of the front of a military unit. Subsequently, self-defense has been streamlined, organized and armed, it strengthened the squad returned from the big cities to their home students. squad members patrolled the streets and squares during the bazaars and fairs in the city when a large number of peasants gathered, and here and there the riots broke out . Once, when a market day in the brawl suffered Zinkovskiy famous pottery market, potters Christians turned to the Jews and their acceptance under the protection of the Jewish self-defense. Besides maintaining order in the trading days, defended the self-defense unit of residents of small gangs and gangs of robbers, but resist regular military formations he understood he could not. Therefore Zin'kova residents often had to buy off the pogroms and massacres so-called "indemnities". Compared to other boroughs Podil significantly affected by the attacks of various bands, Zin'kova cost a relatively small number of victims. Wed di ¬ proved last elected in December 1917, the Chairman of the Board ¬ lostnogo Peasants' Deputies Bundist DI Brik, who was killed by bandits in 1921 With the end of hostilities and the establishment of Soviet power in 1921 in the town began to recover peaceful life. Initially, could still exist normally free trade, as well as community and political, including the Zionist activities. However, soon the so-called EUSEC-tion, gain power "in the Jewish street" banned ¬ teaching of Hebrew in the Jewish seven-year school. In the second half of the 1930s. authorities canceled and teaching Yiddish, and Russian school became comprehensive. Zionist activity could continue only underground.Zin'kova Many Jews did not believe in the possibility of disaster. In their memories were still vivid memories of the "civilized" the German occupation in 1918, and was considered a holy place - were buried here Tzaddikim. One of the honored ¬ tion old then said: "If God exists, he would not allow our death." German units entered Zinkov July 10, 1941 and, without stopping, moved on. Jews had a free lunch for the Ukrainians, hoping thereby to win their location. But the next day looting and riots. One of the first victims of Ukrainian collaborators became the very old man, who has called for calm in the hope of protection of the Almighty. Nazis put your commander in the annexe to the school, her track posted tombstones from Jewish cemetery. The first execution for which selected disabled, held May 2, 1942 in a ravine near the village Stanislavovka on the left side of the road on Vinkovtsy (the beginning of the 1990s. Stood on this spot fuel tanks). Killed immediately left in a ravine, and the next day when it began to rain, flood waters carried away the body with him. shares after the first destruction of the Jews from the Nazis moved in Zin'kova Dunaevcy place where the ghetto was organized. This ghetto collected a total of about 2,000 people. 4 August 1942 the Nazis herded into phosphorite mine near Zin'kova all the Jews from the ghetto, as well as from neighboring towns and villages (about 3,500 people) and explosion overwhelmed entrance. All residents have left these places, not to hear as the 'land buzzing "from the groans and screams coming from the mine. Zinkov few Jews survived the catastrophe.Someone managed to hide in the village, a Jew saved Reitman Ukrainian family.Several people have disappeared in phosphorite mines and stayed there until the arrival of the Soviet Army. They say that after the liberation Zin'kova March 27, 1944, the Soviet Jewish officer arrived at these mines and long called them in Yiddish, asking to go outside, but people did not come out - feared. After the war, Jews killed ashes buried in ev ¬ Vinkovtsy. Every year on May 2 - the day of the first campaign of destruction - dead relatives and countrymen gathered here for a traditional memorial service at the mass grave. At 2013 Jews do not live in Zin'kova Lukin, "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed description of the photo onthat this atmosphere and fed such diverse but deep national phenomenon as traditional upbringing, Zinkovskiy Hasidism, Jewish self-defense, the Zionist movement ... It is no accident of the famous Hasidic Tzaddik Medzebozh p. Yitzchak Meir eshel (1775-1855), son of the famous rabbi-Apter (born Abraham Ioshua eshelya) elected Zinkov his residence. Since moving here p. Yitzhak Meir in 1825 town became one of the most attractive Hasidic centers in Podolia. Spiritual leader of hundreds, if not thousands of Hasidim, p. Yitzchak Meir became the founder of the dynasty Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim. "His life is a chain of good deeds" - talked about him contemporaries. story: Rabbi decided to settle in Zin'kova because here on the way to the synagogue or in the cemetery it does not interfere with focus of the church or the church - a mandatory accessory central square of any other town. Tzaddikim dynasty continued p. Meshulam Zusia son p. Yitzchak Meir (1814-1866). He published a book of his grandfather "Oev Israel," wrote the preface to it, and published his poetic writings, sermons and parables. Great influence among the Jews also used the Podolsk district son. Meshulam Zusii p. Menachem Chaim (d. 1894) and his grandchildren p. Eshel Moshe (Rabbi Moyshele, died in 1923) and p.Pinchas eshel (Rabbi Pinhasl, died in 1916). Thanks to authority Zinkovskaya Tzaddikim place until the Soviet era remains one of the most influential in Podolia Hasidic centers. At the beginning of the 1930s. lived here p. Chaim Menachem eshel son p. Pinchas (later he moved to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Bnei Brak.) the beginning of XX century. in the town had two Hasidic court belonging to two brothers - p. Moshe and p. Pinchas. Their ongoing rivalry has split into two camps of Jews - the adherents of one or another rabbi (that did not stop one of the sons of r. Moshe marry the daughter p. Pinchas.) The absence of peace between the Tzaddik was not reflected, however, in exceptional respect that both used not only in Zin'kova, but throughout the hem. Their "neighborhood" were always open to Jews in need of advice, and during the holidays they crowded the Hasidim, collected from all around. At the beginning of XX century. number of Jewish community Zin'kova exceeded 2,000, continuing to grow in the coming decades. On holidays, when the township gathered many followers Tzaddikim, the number of Jews here almost doubled. Most of the guests stayed in pomestitelnyh visiting homes. Zin'kova Jews existed mainly on income from trading on the market in a small-town market days (Tuesdays) and during fairs. Were here and wholesalers of grain and fruit, had a long business relationship with the surrounding landowners and tenants forests, mills, cramps, taverns, owners of bakeries, shops and stores and warehouses. Zinkovskaya of Jews was not rich, but almost all of them lived in their own homes and receive regular income from the lucrative trade or craft.Hebrews owned brewery Fuchs pharmacy Vurshtatmana (then - Tsinberg), photo studio Schweiger, one of the three water mills (Merchant) , development of phosphorite - mine in the village of steep-Borodintsy Zinkovskaya parish (Halperin). Most of the inhabitants were craftsmen: blacksmiths, tinsmiths, Wainwright, coopers, furriers, tailors, shoemakers, and others. Mention and jars were regularly supplied with water from a single well in the center of town residents most of ¬ Dalen his quarters. Chassidic Tzaddikim addition, there were other religious authorities, which could either be adjacent to one of two camps, or maintain their independence from them ¬ dependence . In the town was 7 kloyzov and prayer houses, among them kloyz p. Altera Katsenelenbogen old kloyz and Beit Midrash (near the Great Synagogue), the synagogue artisans (on the northeastern outskirts) and others. But during the holidays usually Jews gathered in the Great Synagogue, which zinkovtsy called "Movshivka." Going into the synagogue, Jews dressed, as was the custom then Zin'kova, black suits and long coats, belts black belts, head put on a black hat, "half-cylinders." In the Great Synagogue prayer led famous in the whole district cantor Itzik-Hazan. In crowded on Yom Kippur holiday synagogue came to listen to "Kol Nidre" performed by the famous cantor even representatives of the Catholic and Orthodox faiths. Honored guests were seated at the eastern wall, some of them knew Hebrew and followed by prayer. Despite the fact that most of the Hasidic village did not support Zionism, they were close to young people, educated in the national spirit. Disapproving agitation Zionists Tzaddikim in fact did not hinder their activities. The question: "Why not admit Theodor Herzl Messiah?" P. Moses replied: "It's hard to imagine a concrete embodiment of the Messiah, although it is possible that he may appear in the image of the prophet. Written: "... and the whole earth will be filled with the knowledge" that is, the Messiah shall all men without exception. Those "Mashiach", which were still, to be credible only in the part of the people, but the other part did not believe in them and in the end they did not bring redemption, but on the contrary, caused enormous damage. We should perform mitzvot with diligence and go their own way, so that people won the Messiah, or, otherwise, he falls so low that the Messiah will have to come. " Before the "fall of Tsarism" in Zin'kova was not a Zionist organization, but trends of the new movement were felt here long before the February Revolution of 1917 with interest of residents react to the move and the decisions of the First Zionist Congress, deeply troubled when he died, Theodor Herzl, and bringing donations for the Jews of Eretz Yisrael, collectors asked to tell about life in this country . Actually Zionist activity began with the advent of David and Samuel Friedman Blipdera. They are at the beginning of the First World War along with their families were expelled from the border goose settled in Zin'kova. The first thing fellow Zionists organized group study of Hebrew and the new Hebrew literature (in Hebrew family Blinder was everyday language).After the February Revolution, they founded the organization "Thiya" and Zionist club. The movement's leaders actively involved in "Thiyu" new members to care about the representation of the Zionists in community and public institutions, the leadership of the Jewish school, created after the revolution. Boys and girls, supporters of Zionism, collected a library of books in Hebrew, created a drama studio and a children's society "Pirhey Zion." In 1919, the Zionists purchased participating ¬ ground current, which comprehended the alphabet agriculture, preparing for repatriation. Their teachers were peasants from the surrounding villages. In November 1920, the first group of 17 boys and two girls crossed the Polish border and went to Eretz Yisrael. Within the near ¬ Shih 6 years of aliyah Zin'kova not interrupted, then filled with constantly waning. To spread his ideas Zionists often held public lectures, meetings and debates. Opponents of "bourgeois" movement advocated proletarian figures Levi Carpenter, leader of the local branch of a society "ka ka Hapoel Zion" and Abramovich, the head of the Bund. Typically, these meetings attracted multi-. set of people were in the club of the fire brigade, which was in the center of town, next to the public garden, and has already become the main place of public entertainment. Curiously, despite the paucity in Zin'kova Jewish proletariat, the labor movement here was represented by several parties, the largest of which was the Bund. surge of political activity in the town occurred during the years of the Civil War, accompanied by government reshuffle, looting and riots. But the political debate between representatives of various Jewish political parties and movements do not interfere with their unity in the face of a common enemy. For protection against the many gangs and prevent possible unrest in Zin'kova in 1918 was created armed Jewish self-defense. Her squad were young people belonging to different parties, the detachment commander became a Zionist Nahum Ioshpe. First Jewish self-defense in Zin'kova appeared during the pogrom wave in 1905, when the mayhem started Russian immigrants from the neighboring village Petrash. Then armed Jews first, and not only melee weapons, made ​​Zinkovskaya blacksmiths, but also rifles and pistols. Perhaps it is the willingness of Jews to self-defense and a warning sent thugs, prevented violence.After the October Revolution of 1917 had ceased to exist too, however, a reliable small-town law enforcement service in the face of the police officer and bailiff. The reason for the creation of the Jewish self-defense, this time was the attack on the town in 1918 has left the remains of the front of a military unit. Subsequently, self-defense has been streamlined, organized and armed, it strengthened the squad returned from the big cities to their home students. squad members patrolled the streets and squares during the bazaars and fairs in the city when a large number of peasants gathered, and here and there the riots broke out . Once, when a market day in the brawl suffered Zinkovskiy famous pottery market, potters Christians turned to the Jews and their acceptance under the protection of the Jewish self-defense. Besides maintaining order in the trading days, defended the self-defense unit of residents of small gangs and gangs of robbers, but resist regular military formations he understood he could not. Therefore Zin'kova residents often had to buy off the pogroms and massacres so-called "indemnities". Compared to other boroughs Podil significantly affected by the attacks of various bands, Zin'kova cost a relatively small number of victims. Wed di ¬ proved last elected in December 1917, the Chairman of the Board ¬ lostnogo Peasants' Deputies Bundist DI Brik, who was killed by bandits in 1921 With the end of hostilities and the establishment of Soviet power in 1921 in the town began to recover peaceful life. Initially, could still exist normally free trade, as well as community and political, including the Zionist activities. However, soon the so-called EUSEC-tion, gain power "in the Jewish street" banned ¬ teaching of Hebrew in the Jewish seven-year school. In the second half of the 1930s. authorities canceled and teaching Yiddish, and Russian school became comprehensive. Zionist activity could continue only underground.Zin'kova Many Jews did not believe in the possibility of disaster. In their memories were still vivid memories of the "civilized" the German occupation in 1918, and was considered a holy place - were buried here Tzaddikim. One of the honored ¬ tion old then said: "If God exists, he would not allow our death." German units entered Zinkov July 10, 1941 and, without stopping, moved on. Jews had a free lunch for the Ukrainians, hoping thereby to win their location. But the next day looting and riots. One of the first victims of Ukrainian collaborators became the very old man, who has called for calm in the hope of protection of the Almighty. Nazis put your commander in the annexe to the school, her track posted tombstones from Jewish cemetery. The first execution for which selected disabled, held May 2, 1942 in a ravine near the village Stanislavovka on the left side of the road on Vinkovtsy (the beginning of the 1990s. Stood on this spot fuel tanks). Killed immediately left in a ravine, and the next day when it began to rain, flood waters carried away the body with him. shares after the first destruction of the Jews from the Nazis moved in Zin'kova Dunaevcy place where the ghetto was organized. This ghetto collected a total of about 2,000 people. 4 August 1942 the Nazis herded into phosphorite mine near Zin'kova all the Jews from the ghetto, as well as from neighboring towns and villages (about 3,500 people) and explosion overwhelmed entrance. All residents have left these places, not to hear as the 'land buzzing "from the groans and screams coming from the mine. Zinkov few Jews survived the catastrophe.Someone managed to hide in the village, a Jew saved Reitman Ukrainian family.Several people have disappeared in phosphorite mines and stayed there until the arrival of the Soviet Army. They say that after the liberation Zin'kova March 27, 1944, the Soviet Jewish officer arrived at these mines and long called them in Yiddish, asking to go outside, but people did not come out - feared. After the war, Jews killed ashes buried in ev ¬ Vinkovtsy. Every year on May 2 - the day of the first campaign of destruction - dead relatives and countrymen gathered here for a traditional memorial service at the mass grave. At 2013 Jews do not live in Zin'kova Lukin, "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed description of the photos. photohunt.org.ua / Zinkov.html

CEMETERY:

  • ZINKOV I:     US Commission No. UA22180101
  • Alternate name: Zinkiv (Ukraine). Zinkov is located in Khmelnitskaya at 49º5 27º4, 50 km from Kamenets-Podolskiy, 60 km from Khmelnitskiy and 101 km from Vinnitsa. The cemetery is located at Center. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.
  • Town officials: Vinkovtsy rayispolkom-Burkinskiy Victor Ivanovich [Phone: (04846) 21271]. Zinkovtsy Regional Dept. of Culture, Cherkpishniy Viktor Dmitrievich.
  • Regional: Oblispokom-Guseynikov Evgeniy Yakovlevich [Phone: (03822) 65024]. Town officials: Oblast Dept. of Culture, Slobodyanyuk Petr Yakovlevich (03822) 65045. Others: Khmelnitskiy community 'Thiya' Mikhail Zeleniy (03822) 63047.
  • The earliest known Jewish community was 15th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 2999. Effecting the Jewish Community were 1458 Magdeburg Pravo, 1648-1649 Chmelnitskiy's pogroms, 1918-20 Civil War Pogroms . The Jewish cemetery was established in 18th. Buried in the cemetery is Rabbi Itahak Mir, son of Antera, with last known Hasidic burial 1974. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated urban hillside has no sign or marker. Reached by town street, access is open to all. A continuous fence with locking gate surrounds the cemetery. 501 to 5000 stones, most in original location with 50%-75% toppled or broken, date 1780. Locations of any removed stones are unknown. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces, other metallic elements, portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Municipality owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are residential. The cemetery boundaries have not changed since 1939. Occasionally, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and frequently in the last ten years. Jewish individuals within country and abroad and Jewish groups within country did re-erection of stones, patched broken stones, cleaned stones and cleared vegetation in 1945-48. Now, occasionally authorities clear or clean. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Very serious threat: vandalism. Serious threat: uncontrolled access. Moderate threat: pollution, vegetation and existing nearby development. Slight threat: weather erosion and proposed nearby development.
  • Oks Vladimir Moiseevich of 270065, Odessa, Varnenskaya St. 17D, Apt. 52 [Phone: (0482) 665950] visited site on 3/27/95. Interviewed were Kovalchuk I.N. of Zinkov on 3/27/95 and Petrenko S.V. of Zinkov on 3/27/95. Oks completed survey on 04/04/1995. Other documentation was inaccessible.

  • ZINKOV II:     US Commission No. UA22180501
  • Alternate name: Zinkiv (Ukraine). The mass grave is located at 1500m from village, 100m from road to Kamenets-Podolskiy, East at 49º5 27º4, 50 km from Kamenets Podolskiy, 60 km from Khmelnitskiy and 101 km from Vinnitsa. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.
  • Town officials: Vinkovtsy rayispolkom-Burkinskiy Viktor Ivanovich [Phone: (03846) 1271].
  • Regional: Vinkovtsy Regional Dept. of Culture, Cerkpishniy Viktor Dmitrievich. Oblispolkom Guseynikov Evgeniy Yakovlevich (03822) 65025. Oblast Dept. of Culture Slobodyanyuk, Petr Yakovlevich (03822) 650045. Khmelnitskiy community 'Thiya' Mikhail Zeleniy (03822) 3047.
  • The earliest known Jewish community was 15th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 2999. Effecting the Jewish Community were 1458 Magdeburg Pravo, 1648-49 Khmelnitskiy's pogroms, and 1918-19 Civil War Pogroms. The Jewish mass grave was dug in 1942. Jews from no other towns or villages were murdered at this unlandmarked mass grave. The suburban agricultural flat land, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by village road, no wall, fence, or gate surrounds the mass grave. The approximate size of mass grave is now 0.01 hectares. No stones were removed. The site contains unmarked mass graves. The municipality owns property used for mass burial site. Properties adjacent are agricultural. Occasionally, organized individual tours and local residents visit. The mass grave was not vandalized in the last ten years. There is no maintenance. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and vegetation. Slight threat: weather erosion, pollution and vandalism.
  • Oks Vladimir Moiseevich of 270065, Odessa, Varnenskaya St. 17D, Apt. 52 [Phone: (0482) 665950] visited site and completed survey on 3/27/95. Interviewed on 3/27/95was Tihman Lyuba Samoylovna of Zinkov [Phone: 24798] on 3/27/95.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 25 March 2014 23:18