|ZHOVKVA [ŻÓŁKIEW, ZHOLKVA, NESTEROW, ZALKOVE, ZALKVA, ZHOLKEV, ZHOLKVE, ZHULKEV, ZHULKYEV, Z'OLKIV. SCHOWKWA, ZHOLKEVA, NESTEROV]|
Alternate names: Zhovkva Жовква / Нестеров [Ukr], Żółkiew [Pol], Zholkva [Rus], Nesterov [Rus, 1951-1992], Zholkeva זשאָלקווע [Yid], Schowkwa [Ger], Nesterow, Zalkove, Zalkva, Zholkev, Zholkve, Zhulkev, Zhulkyev, Z'olkiv. 50°04' N, 23°58' E, 16 miles N of Lviv. Also called Nesterov [Rus, 1951-1992] or Żółkiew [Pol]. 50°04' N, 23°58' E, 16 miles N of Lviv. Also called Nesterov [Rus, 1951-1992] or Żółkiew [Pol]. 1900 Jewish popuation: @4000.
"Before World War II, the 4,500 Jews accounted for nearly half the population. The synagogue was blown up by the Nazis in 1941, leaving only the outside walls. In 2000, the building was declared one of the world's most endangered sites by the World Monuments Fund. A restoration campaign began in 2001, supported by WMF's Jewish Heritage Program and other sources, which is ongoing. [Synagogue, one of the few examples of Renaissance Jewish architecture] In 1939, Zhovkva, together with the rest of Western Ukraine, was ceded to the Soviet Union further to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pactand became a part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1944. In 1951 the town was renamed Nesterov after the World War Iaviator Pyotr Nesterov who became the first to perform aerial ramming in the history of aviation near Zhovkva. The aerial ramming was fatal to both parties. The name Zhovkva was restored in 1992." Wikipedia. [September 2014]
Living here were
Photographic exhibit called Vanished World. [Sept 2014]
ZHOVKVA I: US Commission No. UA13230501
Alternate names: Scholkev (German) and Zolkiew (Polish). The town is located at 50º4 23º58, 29 km from L'vov. The mass grave is located at the center of town in town cemetery. Present town population is 5,001-25,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.
The cemetery is located at 9 Shevchenko St. The last known Hasidic burial was in 1930-1943. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated urban flat land has inscriptions in Hebrew on gate or wall. The marker mentions famous individuals buried in cemetery. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. A continuous masonry wall with non-locking gate surrounds the cemetery. The approximate size of cemetery before WWII and now is 3.80 hectares. Stones removed were incorporated into roads or structures. 1 to 20 common tombstones date from 1610. The cemetery contains unmarked mass graves. The municipality and a regional or national governmental agency own site used for industrial or commercial use and market. Properties adjacent are residential. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. Occasionally, organized individual tours and Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors visit. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and not in the last ten years. There is no maintenance. Within the limits of the cemetery are market's structures. Very serious threat: uncontrolled access (On market days, cattle graze in the cemetery.) and weather erosion. Serious threat: vandalism and proposed nearby development (possible new market structures). Moderate threat: pollution and vegetation.
The mass grave is located at town E, in the forest. Last known Hasidic burial was in March 1943. Jews from no other towns or villages were murdered at this unlandmarked mass grave. The isolated suburban flat land by water and between fields and woods has signs or plaques in local language and Yiddish and Jewish symbols on gate or wall mentioning Jews and the Holocaust. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. No wall or fence and no gate surround the mass grave. 1 to 20 stones, all in original location, date from 1995. No stones were removed. Some tombstones have iron decorations, lettering and/or other metallic elements. The site contains marked mass graves. The municipality owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are forest and military unit. The mass grave boundaries are larger now than 1939. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours or pilgrimage groups, organized individual tours and private visitors stop. This mass grave was not vandalized. Local non-Jewish residents, local/municipal authorities, Jewish individuals within country and abroad did re-erection of stones in 1995. Occasionally, individuals clean or clear. Very serious threat: vegetation (The forest overgrowth). Serious threat: uncontrolled access (free access). Moderate threat: weather erosion. Slight threat: pollution.
[UPDATE] Photos by Charles Burns [April 2016]
|Last Updated on Monday, 11 April 2016 23:22|