|TULCHIN [TUL'CHYN , TULTCHIN TULCIN , TULCZYN , , TULCIÎN, TULTSCHIN, TULTSCHYN, TOULTCHYN, TUŁČYN: Vinnitskaya oblast|
48°41' N, 28°52' E, 51 miles ENE of Mohyliv-Podilskyy (Mogilev-Podolsk), 42 miles SSE of Vinnytsya (Vinnitsa), 20 miles S of Nemirov, 11 miles SSW of Bratslav.. Jewish popuation: 10,055 (in 1897)
SOURCE with photos: "Tulchin (in the first half of the XVII century. - Nestervar), city, regional center of Vinnitsa region, until 1923 - the county town Bratslavskogo Podolia. Since 1607 called Nestervar settlement mentioned in Acts Lublin corona Tribunal (the highest appellate court for land Little Poland, Volyn, Kyiv and Bratslav provinces) in connection with settling here fugitive peasants. At the same acts in 1613 and the name was first mentioned Tulchin. In other documents, XVII century found both the city's name - and Nestervar Tulchin. Probably Jews were among the first inhabitants of Tulchin. Some, however, extremely vague idea of the Jewish population of the city on the eve of the Khmelnytsky information can be obtained from the defenders and victims Tulchin infamous massacres here Cossacks In summer 1648 Jewish Chronicle presents different information "gathered there to two thousand Jews" writes p. Nathan Note Hannover "Yeven metsula" ("bottomless Abyss"). should also be borne in mind that among the victims of the tragedy were Tulchin and refugees from other settlements edge. The author of "Titus Gayaven" defined number Tulchin Jewish community in 100 householders in other words, the city had about 100 Jewish homes. Assuming that these data are close to reality, that in these houses could accommodate about 600 people (an average of six people in the family). In historical studies, the Jewish population of Tulchin in XVII century. often estimated at 2,000 people, apparently based on the reports of the most popular Jewish chronicles Khmelnitchyna period. Anyway, Tulchinskiy congregation was one of the biggest and well-known for Bratslavshchina. It is possible that in the local yeshiva, headed by p.Ieoshua-son Aaron p. Meir of Lviv, studied Jewish youngsters from nearby settlements. During the next few decades restless Jews are not mentioned in the Polish documents related to the history of Tulchin, who became under contract Zbarouski 1649 hundreds of cities Bratslavskogo Regiment. Due diligence Saleziya Francis (nicknamed "Prince of Russia ") and, mostly, his son Felix Stanislaw Potocki, Tulchin, despite the troubled history of the region in the XVIII century, became a major trade and industrial and cultural center Bratslav. Stanislav Felix moved here from the family residence Kristinopolya after the partition of Poland in 1772 appeared on the territory of Austrian Galicia. Perhaps the only evidence that the existence of the Jewish community of Tulchin in these times is not interrupted, can serve as a tombstone in 1732, discovered in the old Jewish cemetery: it is installed on the grave of Rabbi Avraham son r.Shaulya. Recovery ordered Jewish community life on Bratslavshchina proceeded in turbulent atmosphere raids Haidamak gangs, the occurrence of which relates to the 1717 official documents. Tulchin Jewish community, while still in 1765 on average number of communities in the province by the end of the XVIII century. became one of the most significant in the region.Census 1765 counted 307 Jews in the city and 6 - in the suburbs. To Tulchin community were also attributed to the Jews from 22 neighboring villages (eg, 22 Jews lived Timanovke in Kopievke - 9). In total there were 452 Jewish community; census assured Rabbi Kelman Abelovich, "quarterly" Michael Leibowitz and "schoolboy" Yitzhak Volovich. Towards the end of the XVIII century. Tulchin became the largest Jewish settlement in the region, ahead largest Jewish community Nemirova. At the turn of the century there were 1313 Jews here (in Nemiroff - 958).Increase the Jewish population more than quadrupled in the last third of the XVIII century. coincided with the period of improvement of the city its new owner Stanislav Felix Potocki. Another factor in the growth of the Jewish community has been the emergence of Tulchin an important center of the Hasidic movement. Composition of the population represented in the village of topographical description follows: gentry, had their estates, -11 people, shallow "chinshevoy" gentry - 57 (10 yards), the ministers of the owner's yard - 87 (4 yard), Orthodox duhovenstva18 (2 yard), the Catholic clergy - 13 men (who lived probably in the monastery), burghers in 1511 (246 yards), the Germans - 20 (3 yard), French - 11 (2 yard) , Greeks - 6, Roma - 8, Jews - 1313 (297 yards). In 1796 - 1797 years here was the headquarters of the commander Alexander Suvorov. Permanent presence of a significant military contingent, the many and varied needs of the army and army officials favored the development Tulchinsk market provided employment to artisans of all disciplines and traders of all ranks, and subsequently fenced Tulchin community from 1881-1882, pogroms. and of 1905-1906. Tulchin Jewish community numbered at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries, more than 1 300 people, possessed a synagogue and two kloyzami ("Jewish rock school with two similar prishkolkami"). The results of measurements of the ruins of the synagogue, made in 1948, the likelihood, before the demolition, saying that the building was a traditional plan: root in terms of two tiers of windows main hall area of about 400 m2 was surrounded on three sides (except the east) one-story porches. In 1832 to the merchant class of Tulchin owned 27 Jews and one Christian. Such amount of guild merchants had no other city in the region. Local merchants were trading with the major cities in the south of the Russian Empire, as well as abroad. in 1889. Tulchinskaya community numbered 15,000 people, there were 14 officially registered "spiritual boards" at the synagogue and prayer houses. Place where he lived county official rabbi, possess, respectively, the status of county Jewish center. At the beginning of XX century in Tulchin was 2500 households and 23252 inhabitants. A congregation synagogue and 18 houses of worship, as well as its own hospital, the children received a traditional education in more than 70 heders. In his role as the state rabbi at this time was Yakov Ieuda Grinshpun. All four doctors and a dentist city were Jews. Through ownership or lease, Jews owned all industrial enterprises. pogroms during the Civil War was not spared Tulchin party. Brutal massacre was a massacre in Tulchin the night of July 31 to August 1, 1919 a large bandit compound led by the same Lyahovtsa. According to a Jew hiding from thugs in the village, representatives of the Orthodox intellectuals contributed pogrom, which was the organizational center of Ukrainian cooperative partnership. At the same time, local farmers are mostly not involved in the massacre, but rather provided a haven for many Jews of Tulchin. Every Jew encountered bandits declared communist and killed. According to the report the committee of Vinnitsa assistance to victims of pogroms in Tulchin killed 222 Jews, after a pogrom in the city were 106 widows and 398 orphans. In 1925 there was formed the Jewish local council. In 1926, Tulchin officially became a town, and with the formation of Vinnytsia region in 1932 became a district center. In 1925 the district passed Tulchin campaign liquidation of Jewish Religious Communities, which resulted in the majority of houses of worship of the city and county were closed.You're only a small number of synagogues, one of which was on the New Bazaar.Before the war, in 1939, 5607 Jews lived here (42% of the population). July 23, 1941 German troops almost without a fight entered Tulchin. Germans drove the Jews in Kaptsanovku, district quarters of the Jewish poor, here and a ghetto was established (according to old-timers, it happened on Yom Kippur in 1941.) From eyewitness: "The Germans have gone for Bug. Romanians and Magyars left. Romanians were ordered to wear a black circle and a yellow star on it. There was no water and food.Go beyond the ghetto allowed until eight at night. Jews were beaten in the market Romanians and local policemen. Men are generally not allowed to leave the ghetto.Chased a job to disassemble the ruins and rubble after the bombings. Rooted out forest, logs were loaded into boxcars. We are constantly guarded by armed soldiers and dogs. Labor exchange we were given 180 grams of bread a day. " In established in September 1941, the Romanian province of "Transnistria" Tulchin became the center of the eponymous district administration headed by a prefect; located in the headquarters of the gendarmerie legion. In accordance with the order of the civil governor of Transnistria Aleksyanu on November 11, 1941 Settlement of Jews in the so-called "colonies", 3005 Jews were deported Tulchin December 13, 1941 (the feast of Hanukkah) in a "colony" in Pecheri. According to the recollections of Svetlana Kogan -Rabinovich, "In the ghetto was posted order: we all deported to the death camp Caves" Deadlock ", and if we want to stay alive, must pay a ransom on the list. Was a long queue. Everyone tried to get on the list and make a ransom.Statement gold teeth pulled ticks. Regardless of the list, were all sent to the death camp. Sick and elderly pulled on a stretcher. 80 people committed suicide. They were buried in two graves in Tulchin, which is now without any monument. Before being sent to the camp we were herded into the school, Polizei helped Romanians and Hungarians. At school we were kept for three days. It was crowded. Could only stand. No food, water is also not allowed. The toilet is also not allowed. Hungry and exhausted we were driven to the camp. Pedestrian column in which there were old people, children, women with babies, proceeded from Tulchin to Pechora in Ukrainian police cordon, German and Romanian soldiers with dogs. Lagging behind the convoy shot column. In Pecheri on the bank of the Bug, on the border of the German occupation zone was established a concentration camp, where most of the prisoners were condemned to death. Tulchin Jews put smokers tuberculosis sanatorium, the former estate of Count Potocki, some of the buildings which remained unfinished, with no windows and doors. " According to official data from the 6500 Jewish prisoners in Pechersk camp, upon his release by the Red Army in March 1944 . remained alive in 1550 people. autumn of 1941 in the area of Tulchin Jews were deported from Bessarabia and Bukovina. Most of them are placed in a neighboring village Nestervarke, in 1942-1943,. there was arranged a Jewish labor camp, where prisoners were used for peat development. in 1942 Tulchin were transferred (in addition to 118 local Jews-"experts" who have remained here after deportation Pecher) several hundred Jews deported from Bukovina and Ukrainian towns in particular of Yampol. By order of the Board of the gendarmerie was created ghettos and Jewish police. In March 1943, in the ghetto, there were about 500 Jews. The funds sent by the Jews of Bucharest, the council organized the ghetto soup kitchen and several workshops, many prisoners worked in enterprises outside the ghetto.With the permission of the occupation authorities in the ghetto was established school, headed by the wife of Chairman of the Board ghetto Fishman. Attending school ninety boys and girls who studied inter alia production function. Two musicians of the prisoners were in school music classes. Teachers involved with the children in memory, without books and manuals, children learn without textbooks and notebooks. According to former prisoners at the end of January 1944 German troops surrounded the ghetto with its destruction, but through the intervention of the Romanian gendarmerie commander of the Legion Captain Fetekau, bloodshed did not happen. In Odessa regional archives stored lists of prisoners Tulchin ghetto.According to official Romanian statistics from September 1, 1943 in Tulchin 7 remained Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina Jews from 220 in Nestervarke respectively - 422 and 1168 of the deported Jews. Tulchin was liberated by the Red Army March 15, 1944 In the 1950s, has a membership of about 2,500 people Tulchin Jewish community was one of the largest in the Vinnytsia region, second in size only Vinnitsa and Mogilev Zhmerinka. In 1994, there were about 500 Jews ( about 2.5% of the population) in 2012 the Jewish community of Tulchin has about 150 peopleLukin, "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed photos
TULCHIN: Some from here were buried in the mass grave at Torkov.
[UPDATE] Photos by Charles Burns [Apil 2016]
|Last Updated on Monday, 11 April 2016 02:50|