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TOMASHPIL: [TOMASHPOL, TOMASZPOL , TOMASHPOLYE] : Vinnytsia region PDF Print E-mail

ALTERNATE NAMES: TOMASHPOL' AND ТОМАШПІЛЬ [RUS], TOMASHPIL' AND ТОМАШПОЛЬ [UKR], TOMASHPOL AND טאָמאַשפּיל / טאָמאַשפּאָליע [YID], TOMASZPOL [POL], TOMASHPOLYE. 48°32' N, 28°31' E, 48 MILES S OF VINNYTSYA (VINNITSA), 33 MILES E OF MOHYLIV-PODILSKYY, 22 MILES NNE OF YAMPOL (IAMPIL). 1900 Jewish population: 4,515.

a small Ukrainian town (settlement of urban type) in the eastern part of Podolian highlands, in the Vinnytsia region of central Ukraine on the banks of the river Rusava. Tomashpil is the administrative district of Tomashpil district (780 square km.), home to 40.608 people scattered over the town and 30 villages around.

WIKIPEDIA: "The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 3,252. Affecting the Jewish community were Khmelnytskyi Pogroms in 1648-9, pogroms in 1919-20, the shooting of 350 Jews on August 4, 1941, and the 1941-1944 ghetto. Today, Tomashpol is considered a Ukrainian town and few Jews remain there, although sometimes groups or individuals come looking for gravestones or houses of relatives. Some of the old Jewish houses remain on the old street near the central marketplace, although most are in disrepair."
SOURCE with photos: Tomashpol (Ukrainian Tomashpіl) settlement, the regional center of Vinnitsa region, up to 1923. - Yampolsky county town of Podolia. indirect indication of the possible presence of Jews in Tomashpol in the first half of the XVII century. is evidence of a Jewish boy who fled from the Cossacks of Komargoroda Tulchin recorded in the responsa of Rabbi Abraham Cohen Lviv Rappoport. Mentions of Tomashpol documents Khmelnitchyna period are extremely rare: apparently, the city was destroyed in the early months of the uprising (in military dispatches more often mentioned is a few kilometers from Tomashpol downstream Rusava impregnable fortress wall). After signing the treaty in Zborowski 1649 Tomashpol remained under the control of the territory of the Cossack regiment Bratslavskogo. Hard to imagine that any of the remaining Jews in the city survived these bloody years. Tomashpol began to settle and build up again in the first decades of the XVIII century., when the edge, empty for decades of war and the Turkish occupation, returned to his Polish owners. On the ruins of the city quickly grew Jewish town. Census 1765 counted 108 houses, inhabited by 446 Jews. The total number of communities, including Jews seven nearby villages was 531 people. In 1827, this small town was only two merchants who had guild rank: Abram Leib Wolf Dubchak and Kaufman, in 1838 - the same Dubchak and Meilakh Geyshman . In 1852 there were 77 families registered artisans, they were all Jews. in 1853 according to official figures in Tomashpol was stone synagogue and two prayer houses. pogrom wave of 1881 - 1882. not directly affected Tomashpol Jews. By 1889 the number of Jews in the town has increased markedly, reaching five thousand people. In Tomashpol opened a private Jewish school, a library with a collection of books in Russian, Hebrew and Yiddish. At the beginning of XX century Tomashpolsky community had incorporated about six thousand people and had six prayer houses. Part of them were kloyzami Hasidic rabbi belonged to other communities of artisans - butchers, furriers ("Kushnerov") and others. Massive two-storey stone building old Great Synagogue stood near the sugar refining plant, its walls of the prayer hall were decorated with paintings. In addition to headers (which were about ten) in the town was a Talmud Torah, as well as two female and one mixed private Jewish school. In 1919, in the midst of the Civil War, Tomashpol standing in the path of the various military units have repeatedly been subjected to robbery and robbery. In September 1919 for five days Denikin Regiment of the Kuban Cossacks plundered place. The delegation, which included two Jews and one Christian, unsuccessfully sought an audience with the regimental commander or commandant town. In late February - early March 1920 Romania refused to allow its territory retreating troops of the Volunteer Army.Denikin's troops passed through Tomashpol to Poland, looted Jewish homes and tortured Jews in search of valuables. Soldiers raped women in front of their families and then killed their victims. As a result of pogroms 25 people were killed, 210 wounded, and place set on fire. In June 1920, the District Tomashpol Soviet power was established. In 1923 Tomashpol became a district center in the mid-1920s. here was formed Jewish shtetl advice. In the town opened the Jewish seven-year school (closed in 1937) and kindergarten. Until 1938 there was a Jewish Tomashpol farm "Giant" with livestock farm for 400 cows. This farm was one of the most successful in the area. Along with the participation of Jewish youth in the Komsomol organization, Tomashpol until the end of the 1920s continued to work Zionists: in 1923-1924. there were 15 members of the "Gehalutsa" organization, prepare young people for agricultural labor in Eretz Yisrael. before the war, the authorities closed a large synagogue minyany continued to meet in private homes. In 1939, Jews lived there in 1863 (63% of the population). During months elapsed from the date of declaration of war before the occupation began, many Jewish men were conscripted. With the approach of the German units to Tomashpol authorities provided wishing to evacuate several carts. Most of the refugees could not go away and returned to the town, catching their homes looted. July 20, 1941 entered into Tomashpol German infantry unit. The Nazis ordered all Jews to wear a white armband with a Star of David sewn.July 25 were shot first six Jews. According to eyewitnesses, in, in August Tomashpol arrived punitive expedition, led by SS. Was assembled in the early morning gathering of representatives of the Ukrainian population, in order to resolve the question of the Jews. Speakers at the gathering, and among them were known in Tomashpol people, declared that "the Jews should be exterminated, like rotten meat because they have always lived by the Ukrainians." Gathering unanimously passed his Jewish neighbors to death. Approximately one hour later the main street ran-old Ukrainian, and cried out in a loud voice: "Good people, tick where your bachut, more you want vbivati!" But it was too late to escape, drove home to the Jewish police.Jews were driven in the direction of the Jewish cemetery and shot, the weak and the sick killed lopytami. There were shot to death or covered with earth 150 Jews (according to other sources, destroyed more than 240 people). Shortly after the destruction Tomashpol shares was included in Transnistria - Romanian occupation zone. In December 1941, the occupation authorities forced all Jews within twenty-four hours into a ghetto in the eastern part of town. The ghetto was surrounded by barbed wire. Jews settled in dire distress, with 10 - 12 people in the room. Warden ghetto Zalman Bronfman was appointed to guide the community, was elected a committee of 12 people. Jews Authorities used for heavy work in the construction of roads in the quarry on clearing roads of snow, chopping wood, carrying coal, etc. On the way to work exchanged prisoners taken from the house things for food. The inhabitants of the ghetto, crowded into a small area and did not have the right to go beyond it, suffering from exhaustion, as well as fever and other infectious diseases.On the instructions of female community leadership team visited all houses, collecting donations for the poor and the sick. Individual Ukrainians helped Jews, giving them food through the barbed wire. After the Battle of Stalingrad in the ghetto mode relaxations were introduced, in particular, once a week, on Sundays, are allowed to go outside for one hour, which allowed prisoners to exchange last things on food. In 1943 there were 1128 Jews of the ghetto, including a few families from the nearby towns of Podolia and Bessarabia. Tomashpol After his release March 16, 1944 by Soviet troops left here more than a thousand Jews. Tomashpol In postwar remained a significant number of Jews and retains some features of traditional life.Between 1963 and 1966, when Tomashpol lost its status as the regional center, began a mass exodus of Jews in the larger cities. Rid home buying Ukrainians from the surrounding villages. Nevertheless, in 1970-80s. Tomashpol hundreds of Jews lived in varying degrees according to the old traditions of the year 2012 in a few Jews live Tomashpol. Lukin," "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed photos [Mar 2012]

CEMETERY:

  • TOMASHPOL I:     US Commission No. UA01030102
  • Tomashpol is located in Vinnitskaya at 48º32 28º31, 35 km from Tulchin and 82 km from Vinnitsa. The cemetery is located on hill at N outskirts of town. Present town population is 5,001-25,000 with 101-1,000 Jews.
  • Town officials: Vitali Semenovich Kovalchuk - Tomashpol Town Council [Phone: (04348)21205]. Tomashpolskiy Regional Council Chairman [Phone: (04348) 21205].
  • Regional: Vinnitskiy Oblast Council - Melnick Nikola Evtuhovich [Phone: (0432) 327540]. Vinnitski Oblast Cultural Society - Ilchyk Nikola Nikolaevich [Phone: (0432) 325637].
  • Vinnitski Oblast Jewish Community - Hybenko Bella Aronova [Phone: (0432) 351666].
  • The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 3252. Effecting the Jewish community were Chmelnitsky Pogroms 1648-9, Pogroms 1919-20, shooting of 350 Jews on August 4, 1941 and 1941-44 Ghetto. The Jewish cemetery was established in 1928 with last known Hasidic burial 1994. Vapnyarka (5 km away) and Gorshnevoye (5 km away) used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated, suburban, agricultural hillside and crown of a hill between fields and woods has no sign, but has Jewish symbols on gate or wall. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. A continuous masonry wall, a continuous fence, and non-locking gate surround the cemetery. 501 to 5000 stones, all in original location with none toppled or broken, date from 1928. Location of any removed stones is unknown. The cemetery has special sections for men and women. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces, metallic elements, portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains marked mass graves. Municipality owns site now used for Jewish cemetery use only. Adjacent properties are agricultural and forest. The cemetery boundaries are larger now than 1939. Frequently, organized individual tours and Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and occasionally in the last ten years. Jewish individuals within country and abroad cleaned stones, cleared vegetation, fixed wall and fixed gate in 1945-1948. Jewish survivors, municipality, and visitors' contributions pay the regular caretaker. Within the limits of the cemetery are two watchmen's huts. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, vegetation and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion and pollution.
  • Oks Vladimir Moiseevich of 270065, Odessa, Varnenskaya 17D, Apt. 52 [Phone: (0482) 665950] visited site on 5/7/94. Interviewed were Tomashpol's Jews. Oks completed survey on 05/07/1994. Documentation: City Populations of the Russian Empire, Podol region, 1864; Population of Towns of the Podol Region, Krilov, 1905; Historical Monuments in Podol-Kamanets Region Gulman 1901; National Minorities in Ukraine, Register, 1925.

TOMASHPOL II:     US Commission No. UA01030101
  • The cemetery is outside the village on the right side of the hill. The Jewish cemetery was established in beginning [sic] with last known Hasidic burial 1920's. Vapnyarka (5 km away) used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated suburban agricultural hillside has signs in other languages. Reached by turning directly off public road and private road, access is open to all. No wall, fence, or gate surrounds. 501 to 5000 common tombstones, most in original location with more than 75% toppled or broken, Stones date from 20th century. The cemetery has special sections for men and women. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Municipality owns site now used for Jewish cemetery, agricultural use (crops or animal grazing) and waste dumping. Adjacent properties are agricultural and residential. The cemetery boundaries are smaller now than 1939 because of housing development and agriculture. Local residents visit rarely. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and frequently in the last ten years. There is no maintenance. Vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem, disturbing both graves and stones. Water drainage at the cemetery is a seasonal problem. The entrance is open and the remaining stones are being stolen. There is practically not one undamaged gravestone. The neighbours encroach on the area of the cemetery for their gardens. Very serious threat: uncontrolled access, vegetation (30% is overgrown with grass and weeds.), vandalism and existing nearby development. Moderate threat: weather erosion and pollution. Slight threat: proposed nearby development.
  • Oks Vladimir Moiseevich of 270065, Odessa, Varnenskaya 17D, Apt. 52 [Phone: (0482) 665950] visited site on 5/7/94. Interviewed were Jews in Tomashpol. Oks completed survey on 05/07/1994. Documentation: City Populations of the Russian Empire, Podolsky Gub, 1864; Population of Towns of the Podol Region, Kralov, 1905; Historic Monuments in Podol-Kamanets Region, Gulman, 1901; National Minorities in Ukraine, Register, 1925.
Last Updated on Monday, 24 March 2014 21:58
 
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