|SHARGOROD [Sharhorod, Sharigro, Sarhorod] Vinnytsya oblast|
Alternate names: Shargorod, Шаргород [Rus], Sharhorod, Шаргород [Ukr], Sharigrod, שריגרוד [Yid], Szarogród [Pol], Sarhorod. 48°45' N, 28°05' E, 24 miles NNE of Mohyliv-Podilskyy, 38 miles SSW of Vinnytsya (Vinnitsa). 1900 Jewish population: 3,989.
SOURCE with photos: "Sharhorod (ancient name of the town Shary gender. Sharogrud meet Sharygrud name or Sharogrudka and Shaygorod, Heb. Sharigrod) - city, regional center of Vinnitsa region, until 1923 - the county town of Mogilev Podolsk province. Caring for strengthening defense southeastern margins Rzeczpospolita King Stefan Batory granted in 1579 to Jan Zamoyski, Chancellor and Hetman supreme crown, deserted wasteland near the border with the province of Podolsky Bratslav, between the rivers Goosebumps and sausage. As conceived by the king, there ought to erect a fortified castle, which could provide are sewn edges, due to incessant raids obezlyudnevshego Tartar hordes. The system of fortifications of the city included synagogue serf type. Zamoyski princes, having the experience of business contacts with the Jews, tried, apparently, to support the development of community Shargorod: hardly without their help the Jews could build such a large size stone structure already in 1589, the south-eastern outskirts near the confluence of sausage in Goosebumps. During the attack of the Cossacks in 1595, the entire community could hide behind a two-meter thick layer of walls of their synagogue. In the 1640s, the Jewish community shargoroda became one of the largest in Podolia: some authors mention the thousands of Jewish homes, others - three. Jews lived compactly inside the Old City. martyrology In murdered during the Khmelnytsky Jewish communities "Titus Gayaven" ("thick mud") is what explains Shargorod massacre: "And there were about three hundred wealthy householders, from morning till evening diligently study the Torah, and all were killed. " Probably some of the Jew shargoroda yet escaped between 1672 and 1699. Shargorodskaya town with all Podolsky Voevodstvo belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Occupied by the Turks in 1674 was named by them Sharhorod Small Istanbul - "Kucuk Istanbul."Probably at the same time and the Jews were called Zoot place Istambul - "Little Istanbul." Turks cared about restoring the city's buildings and fortifications, on the settlement of the city and the restoration of the city economy. One of its most beautiful buildings - synagogue - they occupied a mosque. It is known that the Turkish authorities have traditionally tolerant of Jews, their preferred Poles and Ukrainians as the urban population, especially in view lasted for 1670s.attempted conquest of the city is Polish, the Cossack troops. But we do not have information about living in Shargorod Jews under Turkish control. In 1699, the Ottomans, under the terms of the agreement Karlovitskogo forced to leave Podolia, and left Sharhorod. Shargorodskaya community formed anew in the first decades of the XVIII century. known that in 1710 Shargorod already existed in the community, which contained his rabbi. At the beginning of the XVIII century. Jews constituted, apparently, most of the population, and took a leading position in the economic life of a resurgent city. Sharhorod in 1734 suffered from the mayhem that staged one of Haidamak gangs involved in the anti-Polish speech Cossacks under the centurion Shargorod Verlana. Census 1765 , in which the conduct was Rabbi p. Nobah Mihalovich, Jews registered in 2219, assigned to Shargorod community - at the time it was the largest Jewish community in Podolia. Since the late 1730s. Jews shargoroda fallen into the direct influence of the founder of the Hasidic movement p. Israel Baal Shem Tov (Besht), repeatedly came here to preach. After the partitions of Poland in the formation of Podolia Sharhorod entered her Yampolsky district (since 1848 - in Mogilev). According to the description of a surveyor, made in 1799, there were already in Shargorod 283 Jewish homes, as well as the mall "stores 36 stone, small 38. In 1884, the merchant B. Soroker stone built two-storey building, the top floor which was designed to Beit Midrash, and the lower for the Talmud Torah. At the beginning of the 1890s. Shargorod opened in private Jewish school for boys, where he taught Jewish and Russian grammar, Jewish history, the law of God, the Bible and general subjects. In 1880-1890-ies. social activity Shargorodskaya Jews, who at that time there were about four thousand in the years preceding World War I, with the general economic recovery and improved position Shargorod Jewish community numbered about 5000 people. Jews kept almost all commercial establishments shargoroda, they owned four pharmacies and six lumberyards, storage of agricultural machinery and implements, four hotels, mead factory, mill Sloboda Shargorod and typography. During the Civil War Sharhorod endured all the hardships that have befallen the Jewish majority Podolia towns. In the summer of 1919 units of the Directorate here staged a pogrom. According to the report of the chief of national autonomous Ukrainian People's Republic E. Bograda on September 3, 1919 during a pogrom in Shargorod killed about one hundred Jews, and many of the fugitives died from starvation, hiding behind the hills surrounding the town. spring 1920 village Soviet power was established. In 1923, when Sharhorod became a district center, it had a population of 2 450 people (of which 1,918 Jews). In 1925 there was established a Jewish parochial council paperwork which was conducted in Yiddish, were organized cooperative artisans. Since the mid-1920s. until the beginning of the Nazi occupation in Shargorod worked Jewish kolkhoz "Red Plowman." in the 1930s. authorities closed one after the other all Shargorodskaya synagogue minyan began to gather in a private home. lived here before the war in 1939, 1664 Jews (74% of the population). shargoroda occupation lasted from 22 July 1941 to March 20, 1944 At the time of the occupation Shargorod remained in the majority of the Jewish population. Only men of military age went to the front, but some families had to evacuate. In total occupied Shargorod appeared about 1,800 Jews. Once passed through the town of German, Hungarian and Italian military units here occupation regime established Romanian administration: Sharhorod was on the territory of Transnistria. Jews gathered in the streets of the ghetto unfenced Lenin and Marx, were required to wear a yellow badge on their clothes, and mark their homes metal shield with the image of a six-pointed star. For living Jews were allotted 337 private homes in which there was, according to official figures, 842 rooms. During the autumn and deportirovny here were accommodated in private houses and several public buildings still about 700 Jews from Bessarabia and several thousand - from Romania. Statistical survey, which the Jews spent in Shargorod in December 1941, revealed about 7,000 people living in the ghetto. Council was established united Jewish community, headed by Meir Teiči, former chairman of the community Suceava; shargorodtsev represented in the council enjoyed universal respect accountant Solomon Shmulevich . Community Council was able to provide assistance and protection to prisoners of the ghetto: Jewish activists from Romania were able to negotiate with the Romanian occupation administration, often resorting to bribes (Romanian Jews deported mainly from Suceava, brought money and possessions). Community Council saved many prisoners from forced labor and deportation to the camps, he had already reported possible raids, so that the Jews had time to hide in the catacombs Shargorodskaya. Shargorod ghetto, the third largest (after Mogilev-Podolsky and Bershad) on the territory of Transnistria, was known as the most organized and reliable. Many Jews who had fled from other places, including the German occupation zone, found refuge here. community council (consisting of 25 people) in the autumn of 1941 held the most essential activities: opened a bakery to sell grain at a low price, the dining room, where soup fed the poor, and a grocery store. Was organized by the Jewish police, which included the top 15 young Zionists of Romanian Jews, headed by an officer, a lawyer by training, and two local Jews. extremely high population density, lack of food, soap, clean water (in the village was only four wells of which each drew their water dishes), firewood, as well as the most severe frosts of winter 1941/42 caused a typhus epidemic. Of the 27 physicians who were in the ghetto, 23 sick with typhus, 12 of them died. The Community Council has made every effort to confront the epidemic in the ghetto was opened pharmacy, hospital, operated Municipal Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, launched production of soap, cleaned wells, renovated bath and power. By April 1942 typhus epidemic faded. During 1942 - 1944. Shargorod ghetto Jews were used as labor for the construction of roads Murafa-Yaroshenko SOSNOVKA - Zhmerynka. Community Council tried to provide all possible assistance to those who are sent to forced labor, providing them with transportation and housing. Among other functions, the municipal council were in security, contacts with the Romanian occupation control, both local and central liaison with the Committee in Bucharest, with the guerrillas, reconnaissance. In the ghetto acted their court, communal treasury, the food distribution system and essential commodities. Among the Soviet troops who liberated Sharhorod March 20, 1944, was a division under the command of Colonel Stern partisan detachment Schuster. Shargorodskaya Jewish community survived the occupation after the war here had more than a thousand Jews. In 1987, an outbreak of anti-Semitism Shargorod. The reason for this was a mass poisoning residents cakes domestic production (as a result of poisoning died one year old child). Company chief technologist and catering were Jews (both of them put on trial), and in Shargorod hard began to spread the rumor that the Jews wanted to poison the Ukrainians. In the city and surrounding villages grew pogrom mood, which managed to overcome, not without some effort. It soon became clear that received in catering for making cakes eggs were infected with salmonella. Unique defensive synagogue 16c. used in Soviet times as a warehouse, today (2012) returned to the small Jewish community. Lukin, "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed photo
photos. [Mar 2014]
Around Vinnytsya - Lonely Planet [MAR 2014]
SHARGOROD I: US Commission No. UA01250101
Alternate name: Szargorod (Polish), Sharigrad (Russian), Sharigrod (Ukraine) and Sargorog (Hebrew.) Shargorod is located in Vinnitskaya at 48º45 28º5, 56 km from Vinnitsa. The cemetery is located at Muravskoe highway after the bridge on the outskirts of the town. Present town population is 5,001-25,000 with 101-1,000 Jews.
SHARGOROD II: US Commission No. UA01250103
See Shargorod I for town information. The cemetery is located after the bridge on the outskirts of the town. Living here were Rabbin Lopata Olter, Tsadakkim Shonic Avrum, Naphtali Herz of Shargorod, and Jakov Jozeph of Pollonnoye. The Jewish cemetery was established in 1958. The last known Jewish burial was 1995. The isolated suburban hillside by water has no sign or marker. Reached by private houses, access is open to all. No wall, fence, or gate surrounds the unlandmarked cemetery. 101 to 500 stones all in original location with none toppled or broken, date from 1958. No stones were removed. The cemetery has no special sections. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces, iron decorations or lettering, portraits on stones, and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are agricultural and residential. The cemetery boundaries are larger now than 1939. Frequently, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors and local residents visit. This cemetery has not been vandalized. Regional/national authorities cleared vegetation. Now occasionally, individuals clear or clean. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Slight threat: uncontrolled access and vandalism.
Swartz Yuliya Nikolayevna of Kiev, Buchmy St. 5/1, Apt. 8 [Phone: (044) 5503228] visited site on 7/24/95. Interviewed was Devid A Chapin of 3312 Gary Dr Plano TX 75023-1120, USA [Phone: (214) 6183050] on 7/24/95. Swartz completed survey on 07/27/1995. Documentation: Central and Eastern Europe .
See Shargorod I for town information. The cemetery is located at Lenina St. Buried here are Shmulevich Shlema, Gersh Leybovich and Shokhnis Avrum. The last known Jewish burial was end 18th century. Jewish community was Skvirskaya Hasidic. The isolated urban hillside has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. No wall, fence, or gate surrounds the unlandmarked cemetery. 101 to 500 stones, most in original location with 25%-50% toppled or broken, date from 17th century to 19th century. Location of any removed stones is unknown. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery and agricultural use (crops or animal grazing.) Properties adjacent are agricultural and residential. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours or pilgrimage groups, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized frequently in the last ten years. Jewish groups within country patched broken stones and cleaned stones. Now occasionally, individuals clear or clean. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Water drainage at the cemetery is a seasonal problem. Very serious threat: uncontrolled access. Serious threat: pollution. Moderate threat: vegetation and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion and proposed nearby development.
Shwartz Yuliya Nikolayevna of Kiev, Buchmy St. 5/1, Apt. 8 [Phone: (044) 5503228] visited site on 7/24/95. Interviewed was Devid A. Chapin of 3312 Gary Dr Plano TX 75023-1120, USA [Phone: (214) 6183050] on 7/24/95. Shwartz completed survey on 26/07/1995. Documentation: Central and Eastern Europe .
Article in the Kingston Whig-Standard on Monday, October 27, 1997, page 14: "The tombstones are everywhere. Old ones jut out of the high grass at awkward angles. The graves overlook the green rolling hills-Ukraine's blood-soaked black earth under the perfect dome of its vast blue skies. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and the Russian Civil War, the Second World War and Soviet rule gave the shtetls a mortal blow. Today, it seems only the names on the graves remain-Bratslav, Uman, Nemirov, Bershad, Shepetovka. Maria Yakovlevna, a Ukrainian woman who has been tending Shargorod's Jewish cemetery for most of her life, walks among the tombstones in early August. One stone is possibly readable with a very well-trained eye and a magnifying glass, but perhaps not." Shargorod is one of the few remaining shtetls. [Source? Date?]
[UPDATE] Photos by Charles Burns [April 2016]
|Last Updated on Monday, 11 April 2016 00:52|