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POLONNOE [POLNA, POLONNOJE, P, OLONNA, POŁONNE , POLONA , POLONNOYE . Khmelnitskaya oblast PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Polonne and Полонне [Ukr], Polonnoye and Полонное [Rus], Polona [Yid], Połonne [Pol], Polna, Polonnoje, Polonna. 50°07' N, 27°31' E, 32 miles S of Novograd-Volynsky, 52 miles W of Zhytomyr, 54 miles NNE of Khmelnytskyy (Proskurov).. Jewish population: 7,910 (in 1897), 5,337 (in 1926)

Russian source with photos: "Polonnoe, a city in the Khmelnitsky region, Ukraine. Jews are first mentioned in 1601, and by mid-century there was one of the largest communities in Volyn. In 1648, during the massacre of Khmelnytsky killed more than 10,000 people, headed by Rabbi Shimshon izvestnіm Ostropoler. Date 20 Sivan was set day of mourning, and all the Jews of Poland Vaad four land imposes a ban on the wearing of silk and velvet for 3 years. At the end of the 17th century, in 1684, a small Jewish community received from the Countess Lubomirska who controlled the city permit allowing "build beautiful homes and buildings in the central part, which is called" Will ". Jews were granted the right to trade, provided that they pay taxes. This helped to increase the Jewish population, and in the early 18 century, the city became the largest shopping center in the Volyn region. During the 18th century Jews had suffered from attacks Haidamaks, Polish and Swedish soldiers. During the second half of the 18th century, two of the pillars of Hasidism (disciples of the Baal Shem Tov), Yehuda Aryeh Leib, and after him Yakov Yosef ha-Kohen, were rabbis city. Jewish printers were active between 1782 and Polonnm 1820. Among them was Samuel ben Issachar Ber, who suffered a printing press in Ostrog in 1794. book p. Jacob Joseph, "Toldot Yaakov Yosef" (published in 1780.), was the first Hasidic work ever published. It repeats the phrase: "I heard from my teacher" 249 times. She is one of the main sources of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov. While captive were seven synagogues and two Jewish cemeteries. In 1847, captive Jews was in 2647. According to the 1897 census, there were 7,910 Jews (48.5% of the population) Jewish school was opened in 1887, the Talmud Torah in 1897. During the early 20th century, the city had 15 synagogues, was Rabbi Yaakov Shimshon of Shepetovka. second Talmud Torah was opened in 1910. In December 1905 there was a pogrom in polonium . In 1914, Jews owned 95% of the enterprises full. All jewelers (3), tailors (7) Dentists (3) and two doctors were Jewish. 2 Jewish schools were opened in 1915 and 1917. In 1917, soldiers of the Russian army ustroilii mayhem. 98 Jews were killed. 25 Jews were conscripted into the army of Ukraine (UNR), but they were killed by fellow soldiers in the barracks. In April 1919 soldiers killed Directories Jewish members of the first revolutionary committee in full. Another pogrom spring of 1919 was organized by the Red Army, 8 Jews were killed. In September cavalry Budennogo robbed and killed about 40 Jews. In 1923, the city had three synagogues, but they were closed before the end of 20-ies. In 1939 a Jewish school was closed. In 1926 Polonnoe was 5337 Jews (32.5% of the population), in 1939 the number fell to 4171 (30% of the total population). Germans occupied the city July 6, 1941, and a month later they killed 19 Jews. August 23, 1941 killed 113 people, September 2, 1941, killing more than 2,000 Jews. The remaining Jews were placed in ghettos on the outskirts of the city, where before the war was a granite quarry. Polonnoe was released January 9, 1944. After 1945, some of the Jews returned in full. In 1948, still secretly going to minyan. In 2013, there were only a few dozen Jews in the former synagogue building 2 rooms occupied by the museum poet Peretz Markish, native full. Detailed photo photohunt.org.ua / Polonnoe.htmlRA

MASS GRAVES:

2 big graves in Polonnoe where Jws were killed during WWII. Monuments are erected on both of them. Source [Mar 2014].

CEMETERY:

  • POLONNOE:     US Commission No. UA22040101
  • Alternate name: Polna (Russian) and Polona (Ukraine). Polonnoe is located in Khmelnitskaya at 50°7 27°31, 120 km from Zhitomir, 250 km from Kiev and 107 km from Rovno. The cemetery is located at Kirova St. 75. Present town population is 5,001-25,000 with 101-1,000 Jews.
  • Regional: Khmelnitskiy oblast Soviet.
  • Caretaker with key: Baradey Viktor Arsenievich, Kirova St., 60.
  • The earliest known Jewish community was 14th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 5337. Effecting the Jewish Community was pogroms of B.Chmelnitskogo. The Jewish cemetery was established in 14th century with last known Hasidic Jewish burial 1994. No other towns or villages' used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated urban crown of a hill by water has signs or plaques in Yiddish. Reached by turning directly off a public road, accesses is open to all with a broken masonry wall and gate that locks. 101-500 stones, most in original location with less than 25% toppled or broken, date from 1770. Location of removed stones is unknown. The cemetery has no special sections. Some tombstones have portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. The municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are commercial or industrial and residential. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. Frequently, organized individual tours, private Jewish or non-Jewish visitors and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized occasionally in the last ten years. Jewish survivors and the government pay the regular caretaker who cleaned stones and cleared vegetation. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Slight threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion and vandalism.
  • Peysahov Dmitriy Berovich of Kiev, 40-let Oktyabrya str. 48, apt. 6 [tel. (044) 2650346] visited the site and completed survey on 10/30/94. Interviewed were not listed. No documentation was used.
  • There is Tzaddics graves of Rabbi Jacob Joseph of Polonne (1710–1782) and Yehuda Arie-Leib “mochiah” (? -1770).
Last Updated on Tuesday, 25 March 2014 22:27
 
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