ALTERNATE NAMES: PAVOLOCH and Паволоч [RUS, UKR], PAVALITCH [YID], PAWOLOTSCH [GER], PAWOŁOCZ [POL], POVOLOCH, POVOLOC. is a shtetl in Zhitomir region, Popelnya district.49°52' N, 29°27' E, 13 miles NW of Skvira, 44 miles SE of Zhytomyr.. 1900 Jewish population: 3,391.
- Wikipedia: Pavoloch founded sometime in the Middle Ages, first appeared on Russian chronicles in 1503. The majority of Pavoloch's inhabitants were Jews, frequent victims of constant prejudice, who build a wooden fort around their shtetl. In 1736, a paramilitary group called the Haidamakas massacred 35 J ews. bit Pavoloch's population began to increase to 1,041 in 1765 and. In 1910 to 15,454. Most fled the Russian Civil War of 1917-1923. Remaining Jews suffered during Operation Barbarossa, when a Nazi Einsatzgruppen (SS) squad drove into Pavoloch, rounded up all Jews, and made them dig their own graves before shooting them. No Jews live in Pavoloch, but tourists, descendants of men and women who lived in the Shtetl, and people who are interested in its history visit this historic community. [Jan 2014]
- ShtetLink. [Jan 2014] KehilaLink
- Pavoloch,(Pavolitch) Ukraine Research Group [Jan 2014]
- Town and cemetery photos. watermill photo. photos. [Jan 2014]
- Family history article describing the town. [Jan 2014]
- Descendant trip to Pavoloch. [Jan 2014]
- Facebook [Mar 2014]
- map with photos [Mar 2014]
PAVOLOCH I: US Commission No. UA05490101
Alternate names: Pavoloch (Yiddish), Pavalich (German), Pawolotsch (Hungarian) and Povoloch (Polish). Pavoloch is located in Zhitomirskaya at 49°52 29°27, 12 km from Popelnya, 84 km from Zhitomir and 101 km from Kiev. The cemetery is located at center, between Bessarabia St., & r. Pavolochka. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with no Jews.
- Town: Village Council of Poltavets Nikolay Andreevich [tel. (071)25722].
- Interested: Museum of Bubliy Ivan Aleksandrovich. Retilevskaya Nina Kalenikovna of Pavoloch, Mestechko St., 85. Bubliy Ivan Aleksandrovich of Mestechko Str. 25.
The earliest known Jewish community was 1683. 1926 Jewish population (census) was 1885. Effecting the Jewish Community were 1736, 1919 pogroms, and 1926 Jewish Council. The Jewish cemetery was established in the 18th century with last known Hasidic Jewish burial at end 19th century. No other towns or villages' used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated rural (agricultural) flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall, gate, or fence. No visible stones or known mass graves exist. The municipality owns site used for agriculture (crops or animal grazing) and bazaar. Properties adjacent are residential and r. Pavolochka, road to Vcherayshe. The cemetery boundaries are smaller now than 1939 because of housing development and r. Pavolochka, road to Vcherayshe. The cemetery was vandalized prior to World War II and occasionally in the last ten years with no maintenance. Within the limits of the cemetery are a bazaar and a gas compressor. Very serious threat: vandalism and existing nearby development. Serious threat: uncontrolled access. Moderate threat: pollution and vegetation. Slight threat: weather erosion and proposed nearby development.
Kogan Leonid of Novograd-Volynskiy, Lenina St. 107, apt. 42. [tel. (04141)54259] visited site on 5/8/95 and completed survey on 06/10/1995. Interviewed were Retilevskaya Nina Kalenikovna of Pavoloch on 5/8/95 and Bubliy Ivan Aleksandrovich of Pavoloch on 5/8/95. Documentation: Jewish Encyclopaedia.
PAVOLOCH II: US Commission No. UA05490102
The cemetery is located at NE part of town, near the road Pavoloch-Popelnya. The rural (agricultural) flat land, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by Zavalya St. 97, access is open to all with no wall or fence. 21-100 stones, most in original location with 50%-75% toppled or broken, date from 1913. Location of removed stones is unknown. The cemetery has special sections for men and womenThe cemetery has only common tombstones. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. The municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery and agriculture (crops or animal grazing). Properties adjacent are agricultural and road Pavoloch-Popelnya. The cemetery boundaries are smaller now than 1939 because of road Pavoloch-Popelnya. Rarely, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. This cemetery was not vandalized. No maintenance. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures. Vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem, disturbing stones. Serious threat: vegetation. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, pollution, vandalism and existing nearby development. Slight threat: weather erosion and proposed nearby development.
Kogan Leonid of Novograd-Volynskiy, Lenina St. 107, apt. 42. [tel. (04141)54259] visited site on 5/8/95 and completed survey on 05/10/1995. Interviewed were Retilevskaya Nina Kalenikovna of Mestechko St., 85 on 5/8/95 and Bubliy Ivan Aleksandrovich of Mestechko St., 25 on 5/8/95. Documentation: Jewish Encyclopaedia.
PAVOLOCH III: US Commission No. UA05490501
The mass grave is located at NW part of town. Caretaker: Retilyevskiy Boris Viktorovich. The Jewish mass grave was dug in 1941 with last known Hasidic Jewish burial in 1977. No other towns or villages' Jews were murdered in this unlandmarked mass grave. The rural (agricultural) flat land, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with a continuous fence but no gate. 1-20 stones, all in original location with less than 25% toppled or broken, date from 1950. Some tombstones have metal fences around graves. The site contains marked mass graves. Municipality owns site used for mass burial site. Properties adjacent are agricultural and an Orthodox cemetery. The mass grave boundaries are smaller now than 1939. Rarely, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. The mass grave was vandalized occasionally in the last ten years. Jewish individuals within country re-erected stones in 1950. Occasionally, individuals clean or clear. Within the limits of the site are no structures. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion, pollution, vegetation and proposed nearby development.
Kogan Leonid of Novograd-Volynskiy, Lenina St. 107, apt. 42. [tel. (04141)54259] visited site on 5/8/95 and completed survey on 04/10/1995. Interviewed were Bubliy Ivan Aleksandrovich on 5/8/95.
photo of Holocaust Memorial. [Jan 2014] Holocaust Memorial for Pavoloch Massacre: "When World War II began, the Jews of Pavoloch lived in fear of the Nazi death squads, that had killed so many of their brethren in German-occupied countries. They had heard of the terrible things that the Nazis did to Jews, when they encountered them. In 1941, during Operation Barbarossa, their fears were justified, when an Einsatzgruppen squad drove into the shtetl. The Nazis had orders from SS-Brigadeführer Otto Rasch, to exterminate any Jews they found, and the Nazis obeyed the order to the letter. They rounded up all of the 2,000 Jews, and took them to the Jewish cemetery, located outside of Pavoloch. The Nazis forced all of the Jews to dig a mass grave, and made them kneel next to the grave. The Nazis shot all 2,000 of them, and the bodies fell into the mass grave. The Einsatzgruppen, seeing that their work was done, quickly filled the pit to exterminate any evidence of the slaughter, and drove away. After World War II ended, a memorial was erected in the cemetery, commemorating those that were brutally killed by the Einsatzgruppen. Also, the old synagogue, that survived the short-lived Nazi occupation, is now a museum. It has the records of those that were murdered.t: "