|NOVOZLATOPIL: Novozlatopil', Pervy Numer, Nei-Zlatopol, Novyy Zlatopol', Novo Zlatopol., Ershter Numer, Novozlatopoll, Krasnoselka, Mezhirich, Trudoljubovka and Nechaevka]|
Alternate names: Novozlatopil' and Новозлатопіль [Ukr], Novozlatopol' and Новозлатополь [Rus], Ershter Numer and נײַ-זלאַטאָפּאָל [Yid], Pervy Numer, Nei-Zlatopol, Novyy Zlatopol', Novo Zlatopol.47°40' N, 36°34' E, 91 miles SE of Dnipropetrovsk (Ekaterinoslav), 60 miles NW of Mariampol.Zaporizka Oblast,
Source with photos: "Novozlatopol - Jewish agricultural colony of the Alexander Oblast Ekaterinoslavskaya province,was founded in 1848, originally from Vitebsk, Mogilev provinces and Kovno, t biggest Jewish colony Ekaterinoslavskaya province. It was located 1.5 miles from the right bank of the river Yarchur. The road to the village and Turkenovku Svyatoduhovku Street went through the entire colony. The entire length of the street, stretching for two miles from east to west, stretched lime avenue, planted by Baron KI Stamp, first trustee of Ekaterynoslavsky Jewish colonies. Next to a small colony began a steppe 5 miles until the Jancula river valley. Colonists in the "beam shield big bets" in which was vodilas [sic] fish and served as the only watering place for cattle. Drinking water was carried mainly from Turkenovki 7 miles from the colony. The colonists made unsuccessful attempts to arrange costly artesian wells. Novozlatopol soon after the founding attracted several German families. They lined up in the center of the colony perpendicular to the main street, as if forming a separate village. The colony was the administrative center, which included also the Jewish colonies Cheerful [sic], Krasnoselka, Mezhirich, Trudoljubovka and Nechaevka. Order [sic] building was built in the late 19th century, before it was placed in the clerk house. Living in the colony was the rural head of 8 colonies and Novozlatopolskogo Prijutinsky, His duties primarily were to keep order in the colonies and enforcement of regulations of the Trust. In the late 19th century village chief was Gottfried I. Schmidt, who led the construction of colonies lull Ravnopol and Hlebodarovka. Novozlatopol was the largest Ekaterinoslavskaya provinceJewish colony. On January 1, 1849 in the colony 1206 settled of whom 376 lived outside the colony because of a housing shortage, 721were hurt, the last 137 people died. In 1859, 272 persons (110 households),lived there with a Jewish prayer house. In 1886 - 815 Cash shower at 4407 des colonies.[sic] land use within the allotment in 1872 dec., 7 farms German colonists to 280 dec. lots. Baker's shop operated public storage insurance grain reserve colonies Novozlatopol and fun.In 1890, the colony had 86 farms, except for use of allotment land, rented 819 dec.In 1893, there were four shops and three windmills. In 1894 estates colonists had 9075 trees. According to the 1897 census, the colony had 817 residents, including 669 Jews (81.9%). Acted Synagogue (large brick building covered with iron), header (up to 1918), there was a Jewish cemetery. In 1897 was built a new stone building and opened a two-year public college with tuition in Russian. In 1898, two teachers and 107 students. In 1908 there were 1,120 residents in the colony. In 1914, 950 Jews lived in Novozlatopol and 150 Germans. Early in 1918, the colony consisted of 1350 people, of which 1,272 were Jews. Soviet power was established in January 1918, however, then the authority passed from hand to hand. Since 1918-1920, the colony was attacked by various gangs of neighboring farmers. To protect them, the self-defense unit was created (about 200 people). Civil War of 1917-1921. Ekaterinoslavskuyu province turned into an arena of incessant fighting that accompanied the explosion of anti-Semitism and mass destructive and bloody pogroms. Pogroms were suffered by all the Jewish colonies in the province, but an especially bloody pogrom was Trudoljubovka colony, where 175 people were burned to death and shot. This colony was completely destroyed and not subsequently restored. A further blow inflicted on the Jewish colonies broke out in 1921-1922 as the South Ukraine famine. The reasons for this terrible disaster were disruption as a result of World War I and the Civil War, the policy of War Communism, and finally, a severe drought, which destroyed crops. Population of Jewish colonies decreased significantly, Many estates were empty and overgrown with weeds. Things began to improve in 1923 as many colonists returned. Thanks to help from international Jewish charities colonies recovered quickly on land allocated by the state near the old colonies created new resettlement villages. Resettlement of Jews from small towns in the new villages and bring them to agricultural work allowed to escape from poverty and hunger. Through resettlement in the area of old colonies created a compact mass of Jewish peasants. As a result of the Soviet government policy of indigenization July 22, 1929 in Zaporizhia second district was created in Ukraine October Jewish National District. Since the end of 1930 the area became known as Novozlatopolskim. Since 1932 the area was part of Dnepropetrovsk, and from 1937 - Zaporozhye region. Base area settlements were 13 Jewish agricultural colonies of old: Novozlatopol, Cheerful, Bitter, Bitter (former Nechaevka) Zelenopol, Krasnoselka, Mezhirich, Reliable , Novodarovka (b.Bogodarovka) Priyutnoye, proletarian (former Count), Luxury, other freshwater, and new resettlement villages: Maydorf, Oktyabrfeld, Rotendorf, Fraydorf and others. The administrative center of the district became Novozlatopol founded in 1848 In 1924, 686 Jews lived Novozlatopol and 70 Germans. In 1929, of the 12,148 inhabitants of the region 8349 were Jews (68%). Novozlatopolsky area was the area that received immigrants. On 01.01.1929, at 8 resettlement villages lived 410 families who contributed 6 970.8 hectares of land. Lack of skills in the majority of settlers in the conduct adversely affected agriculture in the first time on the final results. On 01/01/1931, in the area was 6 Jewish village councils Novozlatopolsky - 938 people; Sladkovodnensky - 916; Zelenopolsky - 1259; Roskoshensky - 1600; Maydorfsky - 506; Krasnoselovsky - 791. were soon formed 3 new Jewish village council: Mezhirichesky, Fraydorfsky and Rotendorfsky. Total area was in the 10 village councils 9 Jewish and one Ukrainian Svyatoduhovsky. As of January 1, 1933 have a 12-village council district is home to 13 347 people. Area of the district in 1935 was 520.5 km2. District was formed in a difficult political situation - began collectivization of agriculture. As of March 20, 1931 in the area Novozlatopolskom collectivized farms and 80% to 83.2% of the land.Forced collectivization in the area accompanied by ruin and expulsion of so-called "kulaks" and the fight against the Jewish traditions and religion. Soviet power was widely used methods of agitation and propaganda, and direct coercion: persecuted rabbis and other clergy, and synagogues were closed etc. Closure synagogue Novozlatopol colony in 1929 was argued that the population of the colony on repeated general meetings of voters, which attended by 550 or more persons (and all voters was 565), decided on the closing of the synagogue as useless to society and the transfer of its buildings under selbud (peasant house). It was noted that for the transfer of the building for the collection of signatures selbud subscribed 446 of 739 people who lived in the colony, and that the few number of believers (20 - 30 souls) could not hold the building, designed for 500 and more visitors. The decision also stipulated that believers are able to meet their religious needs in the neighboring colonies, which is 3 - 4 km from Novozlatopol. Novodarovke In, "in agreement with the believers" in the synagogue began to show movies. Then Novodarovke and other residents of the colonies "took the decision to close the synagogues." Their buildings were transferred under the rural councils, clubs, etc. In 1936, there were 37 district schools, of which (according to estimates), about half Jewish (including 12 built by the Jewish Colonial Association (ICA) in the late 1920s gg.), and two Jewish Novozlatopol worked ten-year school. According to the 1939 census, the population of the district was Novozlatopolskogo 15,643 people, including Jews - 4701 (30% of the population), the Ukrainians - 8182, Russian - 611 and Germans - 2080 people. In the district center lived 2200 people, including Jews - 1109 (50.4% of the population), the Ukrainians - 762 Russian - Germans and 83 - 239 people. At the end of the 1930s. authorities have moved to curtail indigenization policy. In 1937-38. most Jewish schools were converted into Russian and Ukrainian.In March 1939, the area has ceased to be Jewish and was transformed into obychnyy.Togda in the area were Novozlatopolskogo Arbaytgeymsky, Voroshilov, Yezhov, Zelenopolsky, Kobylyansky, Novozlatopolsky, Prijutinsky, Rotendorfsky, Samoilovsky Fraydorfsky and village councils. summer of 1941, the troops of Nazi Germany is rapidly advanced deep into the Soviet Union. Pausing the front line in September on the Dnieper and on the approaches to Melitopol allowed to evacuate or flee to the east of the country a large part of the Jewish population of the colonies Zaporozhye region. October 5, 1941 the area was captured by Nazi troops. Mass extermination of Jews began immediately after the occupation and continued until March 1942 Most (about 800 people) of the Jewish population of the district was destroyed in Novozlatopol. Local and driven from the neighboring hamlets and villages in the yard gendarmerie Jews held in detention as they accumulate in groups of 100 or more persons come to Novozlatopol destroyed by the Germans and local policemen. Doomed to death forced to dig their own graves and then shot them in groups of 6-7 people. Murder accompanied by looting. Total killed about 1,200 Jews district, ie approximately 25% of its pre-war population. After liberation of the region in September 1943, the Jews began to return to places of evacuation. Antisemitism authorities and the local population, who took them home, and then disbanding the district in February 1945 prompted the returning Jews to move to neighboring towns, and join the two parts echelons settlers in Birobidzhan (1948). At the site of mass executions of Jews in Novozlatopol was established impersonal maloprimetny obelisk. In summer 2005, indifferent Jews gathered by private initiative, decided to reconstruct the monument. For a start they installed a sign on an existing monument, and then raised funds to install a new one. The new monument was opened May 29, 2007 Material, b / w photo: J. Pasik, Detailed photos. Video interview in Novozlatopol, ICC Dnepropetrovsk, 2011.
|Last Updated on Wednesday, 26 March 2014 15:42|