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DZHURIN (DZHURYN, DŻURYN ,DJURIN ,DZURIN, DZURYN): Vinnytsya oblast PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Dzhurin [Rus], Dzhuryn [Ukr], Dżuryn [Pol], Djurin [Ger], Dzurin, Dzuryn

48°41' N, 28°18' E, 39 miles SSW of Vinnytsya, 30 miles N of Yampol, 28 miles NE of Mohyliv-Podilskyy.. Jewish population: 1,585.

SOURCE with photos: Dzhurin (old names Churilov, Churintsy, Dzhurilov) - village Shargorod region Vinnytsia region, up to 1923, the county borough Yampolsky Podolia. In 1765 there were 35 Jewish Dzhurin houses where 84 people lived, all attributed to the community Murafa. According to the census in 1775 in the town was Jewish: 65 men, 69 women, 14 boys, 10 girls, as well as family members in addition to the homeowner two men servants. In 1852, in the town were 26 Jewish artisans selling their products in the aggregate 350 rubles a year. In 1853, the community contained Dzhurin synagogue and "school prayer" (1004 parishioner), rabbi was R. Meir Gleyts. In 1863, the provincial superiors, fulfilling the law limiting the number of synagogues and "Jewish prayer schools" (every 30 Jewish houses were supposed to no more than one "school of prayer", and for each 80-no more than one synagogue), one of them tried to close . in 1871 in the village had a total of 292 houses in 1221 resident belonged to the trading estate (mostly Jews), and 1454 - to agriculture. In 1889, the Jewish community, which numbered 1,320 people, still contained two synagogues, and in the beginning of XX century. - Three. By occupation of a significant proportion of Jews were craftsmen, many Jews worked in the sugar refining (built in the 1880s.) And brick (built in the early XX century.) Plants. Jews owned all (more than thirty) stores, pharmacies and warehouses, the inn (town stood at the post road Mogilev - Bratslav). Jewish doctor in charge of the hospital in the sugar refining plant. During the Civil War Dzhurinskaya Jews were repeatedly subjected to pogroms. So, in July 1919, members of the army of the Directory took hostage a number of Jews demanded a huge ransom for them. As a result, while the pogrom perpetrated killed about 40 people. In November 1919 Denikin's cavalry regiment subjected spot mayhem, leaving 18 dead, many wounded, 60 were raped, 3 houses, burnt together with people, and another 50 set on fire and partially burned houses. Dzhurin was one of the few places where the Ukrainian people tried to help Jews during the pogrom arranged by the Volunteer Army soldiers. During Soviet rule in 1923 Dzhurin became a district center (up to 1930). In 1924 there was organized Jewish collective farm named "Union of Jewish farmers", which included 50 - 60 families, and in the mid-twenties - the Jewish village council. From 1935 to the farm and began to enter Ukrainian family. At the beginning of the 1920s. Dzhurin was opened in Jewish primary four-year school, it was located close to the seven-year-Ukrainian school, opposite the post office. The school taught three or four teachers, its director was Leo Averbuch, a graduate of Odessa Jewish Teachers' Institute. Before World War II in 1027 lived Dzhurin Jews (19% of total population). During the first days of the war Dzhurin was bombed, resulting in the wounding and killed a dozen people, was damaged "small" synagogue. Farmers in the village looted warehouse and shops. German troops entered Dzhurin July 22, 1941 Jews were instructed to designate their homes six-pointed star and wear a special armband. At Rosh Hashanah (possibly on Yom Kippur) occupants with Ukrainian police officers broke into the "small" synagogue and beat worshipers. With the establishment of the Romanian regime occupying power in the town ghetto was established, located in the hill standing on Jewish homes. In Dzhurin were deported about three and a half thousand Jews from Bukovina, Romania (from Rădăuţi), as well as from Hawtin and neighboring villages in Bessarabia. Among the settlers was r.Baruh Gager of "Vizhnitsky" Tzaddikim dynasty and his Chassidim. By order of who enjoyed unquestioned authority Rabbi Herschel Koralnika local Jews took deportees to their homes, and about a thousand people who do not have enough space to have settled in the building of the Great Synagogue, in barns and warehouses. Bukovina Jews, distinguishes from the local appearance, education, level of education, and were much richer. About 120 families were able to live outside the ghetto, giving bribes to the occupation authorities. council in the ghetto, organized in the spring of 1942, included community leaders Rădăuţi. Chairman of the Board was appointed M. Rozenrauh, left a bad memories, his deputy M. Katz was the real leader of the ghetto. Council ghetto taxed, sometimes very high, all proceeds from the Jews of crafts and trade, as well as all monies received from Romania. Was established Jewish police of 20 people, court, hospital, pharmacy, dining room for the poor, based r.Gagerom and orphanage for 50 orphans. Hospital led doctors of the number of immigrants, their skilled work has significantly reduced mortality from typhus epidemic of ghetto - up to 400 people. From bribes guide ghetto could to overturn many of harassment and deportation even further. Nevertheless, the Jews used as forced laborers in town and on the road construction. Between May and September 1943, four former students who worked in the hospital ghetto produced handwritten newspaper "Courier" in Romanian and German. When this became known to the occupation authorities, the council ordered the ghetto immediately stop its publication. in 1943 Dzhurinskaya ghetto was about four thousand Jews, about a thousand of them - local. During the war in Dzhurin killed about 500 people - the smallest number of victims among the ghettos in Transnistria. The Red Army liberated Dzhurin March 19, 1944 With the end of the war left Dzhurin Romanian Jews in the town is a few hundreds of local Jews. In 1946 Dzhurin for awhile again became a district center. By the end of 1980. in the village of about five thousand people lived a little over ten Jewish families in 2012 - a few people. Lukin, "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" "Judenrat Guide to advocate preventive and sanitary measures. On the territory of Transnistria worked most effectively and medical units Zhmerinsky Dzhurinskaya ghetto. Mortality prisoners here was the lowest in Transnistria (only 9% of the Jewish population). In general, in a ghetto prisoners mortality exceeded 4-10 times the mortality rate of the general population ... " "... The provision of specific assistance previously by the Jews to their neighbors, for example during the famine in Ukraine was also the impetus for the response of noble actions. Known cases of aid to Jews as thanks for their support in the years of Stalinist repression. Thus, the inhabitants of a small Ukrainian village Dzhurin in Vinnytsia region decided to help the Jews who stood up for the years of collectivization of the local priest. " I.Altman, "Holocaust and Jewish resistance to okkupirovanoy the USSR".

Jewish history with phtos. "The Jewish cemetery is located at the east of the village, just outside its boundary. At the cemetery are 18th cenetery gravestone. The remaining tombstones date from 19th to the 1980′s. On the cemetery located mass grave of Denikin's pogrom victims (28 persons). In Spring 2013 three local idiots vandalized Jewish cemetery and destroyed 66 gravestones."  [Mar 2014]

CEMETERY:
  • US Commission No. UA01310101
  • Alternate name: Djurin (Yiddish). Dzhurin is located in Vinnitskaya at 48º41 28º18, 69km from Vinnitsa. The cemetery is located at v. Dzhurin, Shargorodskiy region. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with 11-100 Jews.
  • Town officials: Town Executive Council - Andriyets Josef Petrovich [Phone: 21369].
  • Jewish Community-Schmulevich A.S. [Phone: 22490 22205].
    The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1926 Jewish population (census) was 1470. Effecting the Jewish community were 1648 Khmelnitski pogrom, 1748-50 Haydamatski pogrom, 1905 pogrom and 1918, 19, 20 pogroms. The Jewish cemetery was established in 16th century with last known Hasidic (Skvirskaya) Jewish burial 1994. No other towns or villages used this unlandmarked isolated urban hillside with no sign, but Jewish symbols on gate or wall. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. A broken fence with no gate surrounds the site. 501 to 5000 stones, most in original location and less than 25% toppled or broken, date from 16th to 17th century. Location of removed stones is unknown. The cemetery has special sections for men and women. Some have portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves and no structures. The municipality owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Adjacent properties are agricultural. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. Private visitors (Jewish or non-Jewish) and local residents visit occasionally. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II. Local Jewish resident cleaned stones and cleared vegetation but no maintenance now. Vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem, disturbing both graves and stones. Water drainage at the cemetery is a constant problem. Moderate threat: pollution. Slight threat: uncontrolled access and weather erosion.
  • Fuks M.L. of Vinnitsa [Phone: 358296] visited site and completed survey on 10/18/94. Documentation: Town Populations in the Podol Region . Kamenets-Podol. A.Krylov. 1905; History of Towns and Villages in Ukraine . Vinnitska Oblast Kiev.1969; Jewish Encyclopaedia . in 16 VOls. Brokgayz-Efron.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 25 March 2014 18:43
 
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