|CHECHELNIK: [Chechel'nik, Chitchilnik ,Czeczelnik , Chel'nik, Chechelnyk, Cecel'nyk.|
Alternate names: Chechel'nik and Чечельник [Rus], Chitchilnik [Yid], Czeczelnik [Pol], Chel'nik, Chechelnyk, Cecel'nyk. 48°13' N, 29°22' E, 12 miles SW of Bershad, 23 miles NNW of Balta, 54 miles SW of Uman. 1900 Jewish population: 3,388.
Source with photos: "Chechelnik (in 1795-1812 gg. Olgopol) settlement, the regional center of Vinnitsa region, up to 1923 - the county town Olgopolskogo Podolia. known that in the summer of 1648 commoners and peasants of these places support the rebels Cossacks and Tatars returning after the battle of Zboriv in 1649, went through Chechelnik and ruining it took captive affluent residents. In the chronicle of the Khmelnytsky "Titus Gayaven" ("thick mud"), the author p. Shmuel-Faivish son p.Nathan Faytelya from Vienna to the list of destroyed Jewish communities under the name Chelnik mentions apparently Chechelnik. Hostilities, robbery Haidamaks late 1760s., and the plague that swept along the hem and Bratslavshchina in 1770 - 1771., markedly worsened the welfare of their cities. Comparison of the results of census 1765 and 1776 years. shows a sharp decline in the Jewish community Chechelnik. Thus, according to the Census 1765 was 545 Chechelnik Jews: 485 of them were living in 96 houses of the Chechelnik and another 60 - 11 houses of the New Town (next census it is not mentioned, probably because it has merged with itself Chechelnik). 1776 Census also found only 183 Jews in 53 homes and "huts".Even if we assume that the census in 1776 the Jews managed to hide some of the members of their community, the difference in numbers is so much that can be interpreted as evidence of severe hardship experienced by the community between the mid-1760s and mid-1770s. By the early 1780s. Jewish population Chechelnik recovered. Development Chechelnik helped by the fact that in the first half of the XIX century. He became a significant Hasidic center attracts the many Jews edge. In 1871 Chechelnik was 4090 residents assigned to trading estate, and 2053 - to the rural town of 515 houses have been reported. In 1889, in the village (without suburbs), there were 2400 inhabitants, of which Jews constituted 93% of all (with suburbs) - 5526 people. At the turn of the century the community has five houses of worship. It was mostly the synagogue or kloyzy belonging to different associations, which included the most affluent residents, or the Hasidim who are committed to a particular rabbi, or artisans varying specialties, each of which had its own "spiritual reign." In the beginning of the century Chechelnik where in 1910 there were more than ten thousand inhabitants, was the largest borough Olgopolskogo county, conceding only county town population (more than eleven thousand inhabitants) was populated almost exclusively by Jews. May 15, 1919 in Chechelnik entered one of the peasant gangs bandits gathered together all the Jews in the square. Someone started a provocative rumor that alleged in the near village Obodovka Jews attacked the Ukrainians, and that did not happen Chechelnik, we must immediately deal with the local Jews. But among the peasants found Chechelnitsky reasonable people who supported the proposal of their comrade Ivan Sotovskogo first learn what really happened in Obodovka. When it became clear that there is a result of the pogrom killed several hundred Jews, the farmers decided not to shed blood in his place.Bandits in the same robbery of Jewish homes were killed 17 people. Chechelnik was established Jewish settlement council, chaired by Jacob Shloyna (during the Nazi occupation, he led underground Bershad ghetto and was shot in just five days before his release in March 1944, the group entered Shloyna the partisans of James Talisa).In 1939, Jews lived there in 1327 (66% of the population). Chechelnik Before the occupation of it had to evacuate several dozen Jewish families, many men were drafted into the army. One August day in 1941, the Nazis herded Jews in the central square, set in front of a crowd of machine guns, and demanded the release of the Bolsheviks, preparing rastrel forced several people to dig a hole. Unexpected arrival of a German officer interrupted preparations for shares destruction. His miraculous rescue Jews associated with the individual to act in these places legendary partisan Kalashnikov allegedly suddenly appeared dressed in German uniforms. It was, perhaps, the last hero of the shtetl folklore generated fear and hope of the Jews in Transnistria. According to another version, in place promptly arrived one of the representatives of the Romanian occupation authorities. Until the autumn of 1941, has not yet been created by the occupation administration, occurred in the town of looting shops, violence and abuse of Jews often ended in murder. In one of the pogroms and participated festively dressed peasant. Many Jewish families tried to evacuate, but it was too late, and most of the refugees returned. ghetto was organized in Jewish neighborhoods in the territory of modern streets Kalinin, Lenin and Marx. It will accommodate about 1,000 Jews Chechelnik as well as Jews from Kodyma and Gerbils, survived the shootings and deportations to extermination camp, located in the village Domani ka (now Mykolaiv region). All Jews were ordered to wear the yellow Star of David. autumn 1941 Chechelnik came more than a thousand Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina. Some of them were with him jewels and gold, and bribes given by the representatives of the Romanian administration of funds, often saved all the inhabitants of the ghetto. in January 1943 became a regular act Chechelnik financial assistance from Bucharest, was opened dining room for children and needy . Nevertheless, in overcrowded ghettos rampant hunger, typhoid and other infectious diseases, causing about half of the deportees died.Ukrainian police officials and accidentally falls into place German Army soldiers do not miss an opportunity to make fun of the Jews. At the beginning of 1942 in the woods near the village Kurenivka Chechelnitsky district, in a wooden building of the former Old Believer monastery were burned alive several hundred Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina (stone ruins abbey church was dismantled after the war).kolkhoz stables in the village Zhabokrichka (Katashinsky selsovet Chechelnitsky area) were placed hundreds of Romanian Jews, many of them died in the winter of 1941/42's. Both of these places are not marked with memorable characters.Chechelnik Jews knew about the actions of destruction in the surrounding villages and towns, and all the years they lived in fear of violence. Chechelnik Many Jews collaborated with the guerrillas, the ghetto Partisan "Jewish link." Most Chechelnitsky Jews survived the occupation, and the Jewish community Chechelnik preserved. All the years of occupation remained in the ghetto and Hasidic Tzaddik - "Chechelnik rebbe." After the war, the community had a rabbi Chechelnik, traditional community life is preserved in one way or another before the end of 1970. Jews now Chechelnik no Lukin, " 100 Jewish towns in Ukraine " Detailed photos
US Commission No. UA01130101
Alternate name: Chichelnik (Yiddish), Tschetschelnik (German), Czeczelnik (Hungarian), Cicelnic (Polish), Chechelnik (Russian), Chetschelnik (Ukraine) and Chitchilnik (others). Chechelnik is located in Vinnitskaya at 48�13 29�22, 280 km from Odessa and 88 km from Vinnitsa. The cemetery is located behind Catholic cemetery on the road out of town toward Berschadi. Present town population is 5,001-25,000 with 11-100 Jews.
The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1939 Jewish population (census) was 2301. Effecting the Jewish Community were 1648-49 Khmelnitski Pogrom, 1768-1772 Pogrom at the time of Barskaya Confederation, 1918-1920 Civil war and 1941-1944 Ghetto. The Jewish cemetery dates from the 18th century with last known Hasidic burial 1994. Bessarabia 1941-1944 (5 km away) and Bukovina 1941-1944 (5 km away) used this unlandmarked cemetery. The isolated urban hillside has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all. A broken fence with non-locking gate surrounds the cemetery. 501 to 5000 stones, most in original location with 25%-50% toppled or broken, date from the 18th to 20th century. Locations of any removed stones are unknown. The cemetery has special sections for men, women and rabbis. Some tombstones have iron decorations or lettering, with bronze decorations or lettering, with other metallic elements, portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains unmarked mass graves. The municipality owns property now used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are agricultural and residential. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. The cemetery is visited frequently by organized Jewish group tours or pilgrimage groups, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors and local residents. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and frequently in the last ten years. Jewish individuals within country and abroad patched broken stones, cleaned stones, cleared vegetation and fixed gate 1945-1948. Jewish survivors, contributions from visitors and municipality pay the regular caretaker. Within the limits of the cemetery are no structures but more than one ohel. Vegetation overgrowth is a seasonal problem, preventing access. Water drainage is a seasonal problem. Serious threat: vegetation (Oldest 18-19c part is badly overgrown with trees and bushes, making access difficult.) and vandalism (Continuous breaking of headstones.) Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and pollution. Slight threat: weather erosion and existing nearby development.
Oks Vladimir Moiseevich of 270065, Odessa, Varnenskaya, 17D, apt. 52 [Phone: (0482) 665950] visited site on 6/16/94. Interviewed were People from Chechelnik. Oks completed survey on 16/06/1994. Documentation: Populations of Towns in the Podol Region. A.Krylov. 1905; National Minorities in Ukraine. Register. Kharkiv 1925; Historical Monuments in Podol-Kamanets. Goldman V.P. 1901; Town Populations in the Russian Empire. Vol 4. Podol Region 1864. Other documentation exists but was inaccessible.
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 25 March 2014 14:36|