|BERSHAD: [Бершадь, Бершадь, Berschad, Barsad, Bersad', Berszad, Berszada] Vinnytsia Oblast|
Alternate names: Bershad' [Бершадь-Rus, Бершадь-Ukr, Yid], Berschad, Barsad, Bersad', Berszad, Berszada [Pol]. 48°22' N, 29°31' E, 76 miles SE of Vinnytsya, 12 miles N of Olgopol. 1900 Jewish population: 6,603. [September 2009]
Be-tsel ayara (Jerusalem, 1956)
Der Geshichte der Juden in der Bukowina, vol. II (Tel Aviv, 1962).
Jewish community. Nearby communities with Jewish population in 2009: Gaisin, Gorodok, Dunaevtsi, Kamenetz-Podolsky, Mogilev-Podolsky, Nezhin, Priluki, Slavuta, Shepetivka, Khotin, Novoselitsya, Novograd-Volynsky, and Korostishiv. [September 2009]
Source with photos: "The first mention of Jews of Berezhan is 1564. There is evidence of the first synagogue, located in the 17th century. near the city wall, next to it is a school, hospital, etc. In 1670, there were about 100 Jewish families. At the beginning of 188th century was mass settlement of Jews in Bershad. In 1718 The Great Synagogue was built. Jews owned all the shops in the central square and engaged in wholesale trade and usury, conducted large-scale trade of agricultural products from cattle with Gdansk and Silesia, participated in large fairs in Poland. From 1786 to 1806. a Jewish-German school existed, From1805 - Comprehensive Jewish school, transferred from Zbarazh. In 1813 was a Beit Midrash. In 1880 Berezhany had 4712 Jews, 43% of the total population, in 1900 - 4395 (38.5%) in 1931 - 3670 Jews. During the second half of 19th century. wealthy Berejan Jews started buying land and owned 12% of all arable land and 20% forest. by the end of the century. In the 1820s. Berezhany have 17 major Jewish merchants who owned trading houses. In 1901 the association was established Jewish craftsmen. At the beginning of XX century. Berezhany lawyers worked 12-Jews (out of 14), 2 doctors, a few teachers and government officials gymnasium. Since 1874 Deputy Mayor Berejan traditionally elected a Jew. In 1908, CEC opened in Berezhany mutual cash loan. During the 1st World War, many evrev Berejan fled deep into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bershad troops were captured by the Russian army and almost completely burned. After the withdrawal of Russian troops Jews began returning to Bershad. In 1922 was founded the Jewish-Polish traders association. In Berezhany have 40 lawyers Jews, 4 doctors, 2 pharmacist, two judges, three high school teacher. In 1922, he joined the Jewish sports club. September 20, 1939 in the part of the Red Army entered Bershad. Opened a school in Yiddish was soon closed. In Berezhany were many refugees from the western regions of Poland and the Jews, whom the Soviet authorities banned live in large cities as "undesirable elements."Refugees lived in the synagogues, and empty stores. Residents Berejan created underground committee assistance for which collected money, food and clothing.Most of the refugees in summer 1940 were sent deep into the Soviet Union. July 7, 1941, German troops entered Bershad. A few days later the authorities accused the Jews that before the retreat of Soviet troops they killed prisoners in the local jail.Ukrainians seized 12 Jews and hacked them with axes in a Christian cemetery.Judenrat was established, headed by the chairman of the community Shimon Klererom. first massacre of Jews occurred October 1, 1941 (Yom Kippur), where 500-700 people were shot. During the second "aktion", December 18, 1941, about 1,200 Jews were taken to the forest and destroyed. The ghetto was created October 15, 1942 and destroyed June 12, 1943, when they were killed last 1760 Jews. Detailed description on the photo"
Bershad was famous in the middle of the nineteenth century for its Jewish weavers of tallit (ritual shawl word at prayers). But at the end of the century the demand decreased meaning the industry declined, leading many of the weavers to emigrating to America.....
Gravestones [Mar 2014]
photos. [Mar 2014].
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 01 April 2014 22:24|