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ORADEA: Bihor County, Transylvania (Nagy-Várad. , Groysvardein ) PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Oradea [Rom], Nagy-Várad [Hung], Nagyvarad and : גרויסווארדיין  [Yid], Groysvardein [Yid], Großwardein [Ger], Veliki Varadin [Serb], Vel'ký Varadín [Slov], Magnovaradinum [Lat], Varat [Turk], Oradea-Mare. 47°04' N, 21°56' E, in NW Romania near the Hungarian border. 1900 Jewish population: 12,111. Neolog synagogue and Orthodox synagogue are visible. 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: "The chevra kadisha ("holy society") was founded in 1735, the first synagogue in 1803, and the firstcommunal school in 1839. Not until the beginning of the 19th century were Jews permitted to do business in any other part of the city, and even then they were required to return at nightfall to their own quarter. In 1835 permission was granted to live in any part of the city. The Jewish community of Oradea became divided into Orthodox and Reform congregations. While the members of the Reform congregation still retained their membership in the chevra kadisha, they started to use a cemetery of their own in 1899. In the early 20th century, the Jews of Oradea had won prominence in the public life of the city. There were Jewish manufacturers, merchants, lawyers, physicians and farmers; the chief of police (1902) was a Jew; and in the municipal council, the Jewish element was proportionately represented. The community possessed, in addition to the hospital and chevra kadisha, a Jewish women's association, a grammar school, a trade school for boys and girls, a yeshiva, a soup kitchen etc. ... The Oradea Jewish community was once the most active both commercially and culturally in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1944, twenty-five thousand Oradean Jews were deported to concentration camps by the Nazis, thus decimating this vital community. Only three hundred Jews reside in Oradea today. In the center of the city, on the river bank and towering over other buildings in the area, is the large Neolog Temple Synagogue built in 1878. The unusual cube-shaped synagogue with its large cupola is one of the largest in Romania. Inside there is a large organ and stucco decorations. In 1891, the Orthodox community also built a complex of buildings including two synagogues and a community center. Descendants of the pre-Holocaust hasidic rabbinate in Oradea established a synagogue in the Willowbrook area of Staten Island, New York. The synagogue maintains both a traditional hasidicNusach Sefard and a Nusach Ashkenaz service, the latter of which operates under the name Bais Medrash Igud Avreichim of Groisverdain (the Yiddish pronunciation of Grosswardein)."

A tegnap varosa; a nagyvaradi zsidosag emlekkonyve[Ir ve-etmol;sefer zikaron le-yehudei Grosswardein (Tel Aviv, 1981)

Sefer zikaron le-yahadut Grosswardein-Oradea-Nagyvarad ve-ha-seviva, mishnat yisoda ve-ad-hurbana (Tel Aviv, 1984)

Asociatia Tikvah wants to promote the comprehensive documentation and preservation on film of the Jewish cemeteries of Oradea and need to raise funds for this purpose. Contact Source for more information: [Feb 2013]

 

ORADEA I: US Commission No. ROCE-0099 - Bihor County, Transylvania

The Neolog cemetery is located at 4704 2156, 270.8 miles NW of Bucharest and 150 km from Cluj Napoca at Oradea, Umbrei Street no. 2, 3700, judet Bihor, Romania. Alternate names: Nagyvarad (Hungarian), Grossvardein (German). Current town population is over 100,000 with 100-1,000 Jews.

  • Mayor Filip Petre, Town Hall of Oradea, Unirii Street no. 1, 3700, judet Bihor, Romania, tel. 0040-59-137000
  • The Jewish Community of Oradea, Mihai Viteazu Street no. 4, 3700 Oradea, Romania, tel. 0040-59-134843 (132587)
  • The Federation of The Jewish Communities of Romania, Sfintu Vineri Street no. 9-11, sect. 3, Bucharest, Romania
  • Interested: "Dr. Moshe Carmilly" Institute for Hebrew and Jewish History, Universitatii Street no. 7-9, room 61, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Director: Ladislau Gyemant, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
  • Caretaker with key: Nagy Geza, Umbrei Str. no. 2, Oradea

The first mention of Jewish population in Oradea is four families in 1722. In 1736 were registered eighteen Jewish families. The Jewish population by 1785 census was 48 families and 209 persons. In 1828-1829 are registered 105 Jewish families.The Jewish population by 1870 census was 6438, by 1880 census was 8186, by 1890 census was 10115, by 1900 census was 12294 and in 1930 was 19838.

The first synagogue was built in 1803. The Neologue Synagogue existing today was built in 1878. The existing Orthodox Synagogue was built in 1891. At the middle of the 19th century Oradea was one of the centers of the Jewish reform movement. Oradea was one of the most important Jewish economic and cultural centers of Transylvania in the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. In May 1944, approximately 8000 Jews were gathered in the Oradea ghetto and on May 23, 25, 28-30, and June 1-5, 27 deported to Auschwitz.

Rabbis: Orthodox: Naftali Hirsch Lipchowitz 1760-1773; Eliyahu mi-Pintsov 1775-1780; Feisch Wiener 1780-1803; Joseph Sofer 1803-1810; Joseph Rosenfeld 1810-1838; David Joseph Wahrmann 1838-1852; Landesberg Izrael Aron Izsak 1852-1879; Fuchs Mor 1882-1911; Fuchs benjamin 1918-1936. Neologue: Rosenberg Sandor 1870-1877; Kohut Sandor 1884-1885; Kecskemeti Lipot 1890-1936; Vajda Istvan 1939-1944. Hasidic: Israel Hager 1915-1936; Hayyim Meir Hager 1936-1944.

The still-active unlandmarked Neolog cemetery was established in 1881. Noteworthy individuals buried in the cemetery: Rabbi: Dr. Leopold Kecskemeti (Iaacov Itsac Halevi 1865-1936), one of the most outstanding representatives of the Wiesenschaft des Judentums from Transylvania. Cohanim: Barta Deszo (David Ben Beniamin Hacohen 1866-1937); Horvath Ioan (Iona Ben Iehoshua Hacohen 1903-1959); Bard Sandor (Shmuel Ben Shimon Hacohen 1894-1961); Kalman Ferenc (Itshac Ben Shlomo Hacohen 1898-1965).

The urban flat land, part of a municipal cemetery, has Jewish symbols on wall or gate to mark the cemetery. Reached by a public road, access is open with permission. A masonry wall with a gate that locks surrounds the site. Approximate pre-WWII size was 14601 square m. Approximate post-WWII size is 14601 square m. 500-5000 stones are visible. 20-100 stones are in original location. 20-100 stones are not in original location. Less than 25% of the stones are toppled or broken. Location of stones removed from the cemetery is unknown. Vegetation overgrowth in the cemetery is a seasonal problem preventing access. Water drainage is good all year.

The cemetery has special sections for Cohanim. The oldest known gravestone dates from 1881. The 19th and 20th century marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, and slate, iron, wood, concrete, and local stone memorial markers are flat shaped, smoothed and inscribed, and carved relief-decorated, double tombstones, and sculpted monuments and multi-stone monuments. Some have other metallic elements and metal fences around graves with Hebrew, Hungarian, and Romanian inscriptions. The cemetery has Holocaust memorial and contains marked mass graves.

The local Jewish community owns the property used for Jewish cemetery and orchard. Adjacent properties are commercial or industrial. Frequently, organized Jewish group or pilgrimage tours, private visitors, and local residents visit the never vandalized cemetery. Maintenance has been re-erection of stones, patching broken stones, cleaning stones, and clearing vegetation by local non-Jewish residents in 1999. Current care is regular unpaid caretaker. Within the limits of the cemetery is a preburial house. The preburial house has a tahara and ohel.

Claudia Ursutiu, Pietroasa Str. no. 21, 3400 Cluj Napoca, Romania, tel. 0040-64-151073
visited the site and completed the survey on 10 July 2000 using the following documentation:

  • Recensamantul din 1880. Transilvania (1880 Transylvania Jewish Population Census.) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj 1997.
  • Recensamantul din 1900. (1900 Transylvania Jewish Population Census) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj, 1999
  • Recensamantul general al populatiei din 29 decembrie 1930 (The General Census of the Population from December 29, 1930), vol. II, Bucuresti 1938
  • Recensamintul general al populatiei din Romania din 7 ianuarie 1992 (The General Census of the Population of Romania from January 7, 1992), vol. I, Bucuresti, 1994
  • Emlekkonyv Dr. Kecskemeti Lipot forabbi temeteserol, Oradea, f. a.
  • Zsido Lexikon, ed. by Ujvari Peter, Budapest, 1929
  • Leitner Zoltan, Freund Fulop, Ketszaz esztendo az emberszeretet szolgalataban. Oradea. Izr. Szentegylet-Chevra Kadisa 200 eves tortenete. 1731-1931, Oradea, 1932
  • Varad a viharban, ed. Katona Bela, Oradea, 1946
  • Tegnap varosa. A nagyvaradi zsidosag emlekkonyve, ed. Schon Dezso, Heller M. Rubinstein Sandor, Groszman Odon, Greda Jozsef, Rappaport Otto, Tel Aviv, 1981
  • Carmilly-Weinberger, Moshe, History of the Jews of Transylvania (1623-1944), Bucuresti, 1994; Budapest 1995 in Romanian and Hungarian
  • Tereza Mozes, Evreii din Oradea (The Jews from Oradea), Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1997
  • Izvoare si marturii referitoare la evreii din Romania (Sources and Testimonies on the Jews in Romania), vol. III/1-2, coord. L. Gyemant, L. Benjamin, Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1999
  • Ladislau Gyemant, Evreii din Transilvania in epoca emanciparii (1790-1867) (The Jews of Transylvania in the Age of Emancipation, 1790-1867), Bucuresti, Ed. Enciclopedica, 2000
  • Coriolan Suciu, Dictionar istoric al localitatilor din Transilvania (The Historical Dictionary of Localities in Transylvania), vol. I-II, Bucuresti, 1967
  • Otto Mitelstrass, Historisch-Landeskundlicher Atlas von Siebenburgen, Ortsnamenbuch, Heidelberg, 1992
  • Microsoft Auto Route Express, 1999

Claudia and Adrian Ursutiu interviewed Nagy Geza; Petru Stern from the Oradea Jewish Community. [January 2003]

 

ORADEA II: US Commission No. ROCE-0100

See Oradea I for town information. The Orthodox cemetery is located at Toamnei Street no. 3, 3700, judet Bihor, Romania.

  • Key holder and Caretaker: Farkas Katalin, Toamnei Str. no. 3, Oradea

Noteworthy Jewish residents of the community were Ullman Izidor and son (Sandor) - Chairmen of the Jewish Orthodox Community, scholars and trademans; Kurlander Rafael - Chairman of Chevra Kadisa, scholar and trademan. The still active unlandmarked The cemetery was established in 1876. Noteworthy individuals buried in the cemetery: Chief Rabbi Mose Hersch Fuchs (Mor) (deceased -1911.)

The urban flat land, part of a municipal cemetery, has inscriptions on the preburial house.
Reached by a public road, access is open with permission. A fence with a gate that locks surrounds the site. Approximate pre-and post-WWII size is 20730 square m. 500-5000 stones are visible. 500-5,000 are in original location. 20-100 stones are not in original location. Less than 25% of the stones are toppled or broken. Gravestones removed from the cemetery are in private hands. Vegetation overgrowth in the cemetery is a seasonal problem preventing access and disturbing graves. (partially) Water drainage is good all year.

The cemetery has special sections for rabbis and Cohanim. The oldest known gravestone dates from 1876. The 19th and 20th century marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, iron, local stone, and concrete tombstones and memorial markers are flat shaped, smoothed and inscribed, and carved relief-decorated, and double tombstones. Some have iron decoration or rlettering, other than metallic elements, metal fences around graves, and Hebrew, Hungarian, and Roumanian inscriptions. The cemetery has Holocaust memorial. No known mass graves.

The local Jewish community owns the property used for Jewish cemetery and orchard. Adjacent properties are commercial or industrial. Frequently, organized Jewish group or pilgrimage tours, private visitors, and local residents visit the never vandalized cemetery. Maintenance has been re-erection of stones, cleaning stones, and clearing vegetation. Current care is regular unpaid caretaker. Within the limits of the cemetery is a preburial house with a tahara, catafalque, and an ohel.

Claudia Ursutiu, Pietroasa Str. no. 21, 3400 Cluj Napoca, Romania, tel. 0040-64-151073
visited the site and completed the survey on 10 July 2000 using the following documentation:

  • Recensamantul din 1880. Transilvania (1880 Transylvania Jewish Population Census.) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj 1997.
  • Recensamantul din 1900. (1900 Transylvania Jewish Population Census) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj, 1999
  • Recensamantul general al populatiei din 29 decembrie 1930 (The General Census of the Population from December 29, 1930), vol. II, Bucuresti 1938
  • Recensamintul general al populatiei din Romania din 7 ianuarie 1992 (The General Census of the Population of Romania from January 7, 1992), vol. I, Bucuresti, 1994
  • Emlekkonyv Dr. Kecskemeti Lipot forabbi temeteserol, Oradea, f. a.
  • Zsido Lexikon, ed. by Ujvari Peter, Budapest, 1929
  • Leitner Zoltan, Freund Fulop, Ketszaz esztendo az emberszeretet szolgalataban. Oradea. Izr. Szentegylet-Chevra Kadisa 200 eves tortenete. 1731-1931, Oradea, 1932
  • Varad a viharban, ed. Katona Bela, Oradea, 1946
  • Tegnap varosa. A nagyvaradi zsidosag emlekkonyve, ed. Schon Dezso, Heller M. Rubinstein Sandor, Groszman Odon, Greda Jozsef, Rappaport Otto, Tel Aviv, 1981
  • Carmilly-Weinberger, Moshe, History of the Jews of Transylvania (1623-1944), Bucuresti, 1994; Budapest 1995 in Romanian and Hungarian
  • Tereza Mozes, Evreii din Oradea (The Jews from Oradea), Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1997
  • Izvoare si marturii referitoare la evreii din Romania (Sources and Testimonies on the Jews in Romania), vol. III/1-2, coord. L. Gyemant, L. Benjamin, Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1999
  • Ladislau Gyemant, Evreii din Transilvania in epoca emanciparii (1790-1867) (The Jews of Transylvania in the Age of Emancipation, 1790-1867), Bucuresti, Ed. Enciclopedica, 2000
  • Coriolan Suciu, Dictionar istoric al localitatilor din Transilvania (The Historical Dictionary of Localities in Transylvania), vol. I-II, Bucuresti, 1967
  • Otto Mitelstrass, Historisch-Landeskundlicher Atlas von Siebenburgen, Ortsnamenbuch, Heidelberg, 1992
  • Microsoft Auto Route Express, 1999

Claudia and Adrian Ursutiu interviewed Farkas Katalin; Petru Stern from the Jewish Community, Oradea. [January 2003]

 

ORADEA III

The old Orthodox cemetery is located at Razboieni Street no. 88-90.

  • Caretaker and key holder: Simon Lucia, Razboieni Street no. 88-90, Oradea

The cemetery was established in 1801. Noteworthy individuals buried in the unlandmarked cemetery: Rabbis: Chief Rabbi Naftali Cvi Lipochovitz (d. 1773, his grave stone was relocated later in the cemetery); Chief Rabbi Landesberg Aron (d. 1879); Chief Rabbi Wiener Feisch (d. 1803); Chief Rabbi Rosenfeld Josif (d. 1832); Chief Rabbi Wahrmann David (d. 1852). Last known burial was approximately 1943.

The urban flat land, part of a municipal cemetery, has no sign or marker. Reached by a public road, access is open with permission. A fence with a gate that locks surrounds the site. Approximate pre-WWII size was 29368 square m. Approximate post-WWII size is 29368 square m. 500-5000 stones are visible and are in original location. 20-100 stones are not in original location. Less than 25% of the stones are toppled or broken. Location of stones removed from the cemetery is unknown. Vegetation overgrowth in the cemetery is a constant problem disturbing stones. Water drainage is good all year.

The cemetery has special sections rabbis and Cohanim. The oldest known gravestone dates from 1801. The 19th and 20th century marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, slate, iron, concrete, and local stone memorial markers are flat shaped, smoothed and inscribed, and carved relief-decorated, double tombstones, and sculpted monuments. Some have metal fences around graves. Have Hebrew and Hungarian inscriptions. No known mass graves.

The local Jewish community owns the property used for Jewish cemetery only. Adjacent properties are residential. Occasionally, private Jewish or non-Jewish visitors and local residents stop at the never vandalized cemetery. Maintenance has been re-erection of stones, cleaning stones, and clearing vegetation. Current care is regular unpaid caretaker. Within the limits of the cemetery is an empty preburial house. Vegetation is a serious threat. (The grave stones are almost covered with vegetation.)

Claudia Ursutiu, Pietroasa Str. no. 21, 3400 Cluj Napoca, Romania, tel. 0040-64-151073
visited the site and completed the survey on 10 July 2000 using the following documentation:

  • Recensamantul din 1880. Transilvania (1880 Transylvania Jewish Population Census.) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj 1997.
  • Recensamantul din 1900. (1900 Transylvania Jewish Population Census) coord.: Traian Rotariu, Cluj, 1999
  • Recensamantul general al populatiei din 29 decembrie 1930 (The General Census of the Population from December 29, 1930), vol. II, Bucuresti 1938
  • Recensamintul general al populatiei din Romania din 7 ianuarie 1992 (The General Census of the Population of Romania from January 7, 1992), vol. I, Bucuresti, 1994
  • Zsido Lexikon, ed. by Ujvari Peter, Budapest, 1929
  • Carmilly-Weinberger, Moshe, History of the Jews of Transylvania (1623-1944), Bucuresti, 1994; Budapest 1995 in Romanian and Hungarian
  • Tereza Mozes, Evreii din Oradea (The Jews from Oradea), Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1997
  • Izvoare si marturii referitoare la evreii din Romania (Sources and Testimonies on the Jews in Romania), vol. III/1-2, coord. L. Gyemant, L. Benjamin, Bucuresti, Ed. Hasefer, 1999
  • Coriolan Suciu, Dictionar istoric al localitatilor din Transilvania (The Historical Dictionary of Localities in Transylvania), vol. I-II, Bucuresti, 1967
  • Otto Mitelstrass, Historisch-Landeskundlicher Atlas von Siebenburgen, Ortsnamenbuch, Heidelberg, 1992
  • Microsoft Auto Route Express, 1999

Claudia and Adrian Ursutiu interviewed Simon Ludovic; Petru Stern from the Oradea Jewish Community. [January 2003]

 

ORADEA IV:US Commission No. ROCE-0101
Alternate Hungarian name: Nagyvarad, Hungary
Bihor judet. US Commission information pending [March 2001]
See: abandoned sites Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel: A Guide to East-Central Europe New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992. - 201
"Oradea (Hungarian-Nagyvarad) is a city in Transylvania, western Romania. Jews lived in the city from the early 18th century. By 1941, the Jewish population was in excess of 21,000 (about 23% of the total population). The community came to an end in 1944 when the German-Hungarian administration established a ghetto and sent its occupants to death camps. Today, the Jewish population is estimated at less than 1,000." Source: http://www.edwardvictor.com/Oradea_Romania.htm [October 2001].

Last Updated on Monday, 18 February 2013 16:04
 
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