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Sephardic Studies [September 2002]:

Before WWII, 20,000 Jewish families lived in all of Romania. The survivors were "bought" by Israel from the Communists based onto their intellectuality and university degrees. Today's Romanian Jewish popuation of about 9,000 persons in the entire country is very elderly. The political and socio-economical situation in Romania continues to erode Jewish contribution to Romanian culture and commerce. [February 2002]

Sephardic Cemetery: The few remaining Sephardim in Romania were assimilated by Askenazim. Only the Sephardic cemetery in Bucharest remains as proof of their former presence. [February 2002]

The US Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad began to survey Jewish monuments in Romania. Contact: Samuel Gruber, 123 Clarke St., Syracuse, NY 13210. All cemetery descriptions that follow with a "RO-CE" and a number are from the Survey of Historic Jewish Sites and Monuments in Romania sponsored by the U.S. Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad.

Photo appendix to article by Samuel Gruber [September 2016]



  1. BOOK: Jewish Graveyards in the Custody of the Mosaic Community of Cluj Napoca by Micea Moldovan, sent by Ladislau Gymant. : "At the end of 1987, there were 675 identified graveyards, 459 of which were in Transylvania. Many were closed because there were no more Jews left. In the Transylvanian counties of Bihor, there were 59 cemeteries, Bistrita-Nasaud-52, Cluj-40, Maramures over 80, Satu-Mare-over 100, and Sălaj-28. Rich and Poor were buried side by side, but rabbis were arranged in separate rows. Chevra Kadishas generally were set up when the community began; therefore often are older than the synagogue. The tombstones had definite heights, but their width could differ according to social rank and fortune. One-third of the early stones were made of earth, 2/3 were carved and were lower. Later ones were over six to eight feet tall. The article describes the type and artistic designs of the stones. Detail about the cemeteries in the Cluj-Napoca area are given." [See Cluj-Napoca]. Source: Ladislau Gyemant, str. Tarmta, B1B5 S op.28, 3400 Chj-Nepocie, Moldavia, Transylvania; e-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
  2. BOOK: Saros Laszlo and Vali Dezso. Tanu ez a kohalom ; (This Cairn is Witness Today). ISBN 963 7476 172. A very interesting book of Jewish Cemetery Photographs published in Hungary in 1993, 149 pages of black and white photos and 8 (English) pages of text with general information. The sections are: Introduction, Cemetery in Ancient Times, Old Tombstones, Cemetery and History, The Tombs of the Ancestors, Tent and Parchment, People and Flower, Rituals of Death, Epitaphs, Signs and Symbols Source: '; and see
  3. BOOK: Citations for Maramures County 1850 census and historical information: Recensamântul Din 1880 Transilvania : Studia Censualia Transsivanica Universitatea "Babes-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca Catedra si Laboratorul de Sociologie. Traian Rotariu, coordinator; Maria Semeniuc; Cornelia Muresan, information. 1997, UBB Catedra de Sociologie. Editura Staff, 1997.
  4. BOOK: Sursa datelor statistice: A Magyar Korona országaiban az 1881 . Év elején végrehajtott népszámlálás fobb eredményei megyék és községek szerint részletezve, II kötet, Budapesta, 1882. ISBN 973-9679641. (Programul de cercetare si editarea volumului au fost finantate de ministerul educatiei nationale si fundatia Soros)
  5. BOOK: Recensamântul Din 1850 Transilvania : Studia Censualia Transsivanica Universitatea "Babes-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca Catedra si Laboratorul de Sociologie. Traian Rotariu, coordonator; Ion Bolovan, consultant; Mezei Elemér, tehnoredactare. 1997, UBB Catedra de Sociologie. Sursa datelor statistice: Az 1850. Évi erdélyi népszámlálás. Köponti statisztikai hivatal levéltára, Budapest, 1983. ISBN 973-96796-8. (Programul de cercetare si editarea volumului au fost finantate de ministerul educatiei nationale si fundatia Soros)
  6. Mircea-Sergiu Moldovan, PhD. (Professor and architect, str. Parîng, nr. 1, bl. A4, ap. 12, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Ph.: 40-64-161261) prepared many of the survey forms. Dates are listed by the individual cemeteries. Documentation used to completed the surveys include:
  7. BOOK: Otto Mittelstrass, Historisch-Landeskundlicher Atlas von Siebenbürgen. Ortsnamenbuch, Heidelberg, 1992; Recens m ntul din 1850.
  8. BOOK: Transylvania (The Census of 1850. Transylvania), Bucure ti, 1996; Recens m ntul din 1857
  9. BOOK: Transilvania (The Census of 1857. Transylvania), Bucure ti, 1997
  10. BOOK: Recens m ntul din 1880. Transilvania (The Census of 1880. Transylvania), Bucure ti, 1998; Recens m ntul general al popula iei Rom niei din 29 decembrie 1930 ( The general Census of the population of Romania December 29, 1930),I-III, Bucure ti, 1938
  11. BOOK: Ujvari Peter, Magyar-Zsido Lexikon (Hungarian-Jewish Lexikon), Budapest, 1929
  12. BOOK: Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger, Istoria evreilor din Transilvania (1623-1944) (History of the Jews of Transylvania-1623-1944), Bucure ti, 1994. Professor Moldovan recorded the tombstones of the various cemeteries on VHS videotape.      BOOK: Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel: A Guide to East-Central Europe . New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992. See abandoned sites; main Jewish communities indicated with an asterisk (*) (pps 201-202); excerpts were compiled by Elaine B. Kolinsky (pages 192-223).
  13. BOOK: Jewish Cemeteries of Bucovina. Publisher: Noi Media Print (Bucharest). 2009. ISBN: 978-973-1805-50-4. Rom, Ukr, Eng, French, Ger. 111 pages. To order, contact the author/photographer: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [July 2009]
  14. BOOK: "Like Pebbles on a Shore and [February 2011]
  15. Ancel, Jean. Bibliography of the Jews in Romania, compiled by Jean Ancel and Victor Eskenasy ([Tel Aviv]: Goldstein-Goren Centre for the History of the Jews in Romania, Diaspora Research Institute, Tel Aviv University, 1991)

  16. Bar-Avi, Israel. Esseuri (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1967-1972)

  17. Bar-Avi, Israel. O istorie a evreilor romani (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1961-1971)

  18. Bar-Avi, Israel. Oameni si fapte (cu privire la specific), prezentare: Mitu Grosu, portret: I. Rosintal (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora," 1965)

  19. Butnaru, I. C. The silent Holocaust: Romania and its Jews, foreword by Elie Wiesel (New York; London: Greenwood Press, 1992)

  20. Buzatu, Gh. Asa a inceput holocaustulimpotriva poporului Roman (Bucuresti: Editura Majadahonda, 1995)

  21. Caiet pentru literatura si istoriografie Cenaclul Literar "Menora" (Jerusalim: Cenaclul literar "Menora", 1965-1973)

  22. Carmilly-Weinberger, Moshe. Istoria evreilor din Transilvania (1623-1944) (Bucuresti: Editura Enciclopedica, 1994)

  23. Carp, Matatias. Holocaust in Rumania: facts and documents on the annihilation of Rumania's Jews, 1940-44 [translated by Sean Murphy] (Budapest: Primor Publishing, 1994)

  24. Cohn, Filip. Baricada: roman, etc. (Iafo: Tipografia "Hasefer Hahadas", 1969)

  25. Cohn, Filip. Intalnire: roman, etc. (Iafo: Tipografia "Hasefer Hahadas", [1970])

  26. Colin, Amy D. Paul Celan: holograms of darkness (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1991)

  27. Deleanu, Horia. Intalniri memorabile (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1995)

  28. The destruction of Romanian and Ukrainian Jews during the Antonescu era, edited by Randolph L. Braham (Social Science Monographs) (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997)

  29. Dombrovska, D. Soviet and East European Jewry as reflected in Western periodicals: an annotated bibliography, compiled by D. Dombrovska, edited by B. Pinkus (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, Centre for Documentation of East European Jewry, Society for Research on Jewish Communities, 1972)

  30. Eros, Blanka. Soha nem engedem el a kezed! (Nagyvorad: Literator, 1994)

  31. Evreii din Romania intre anii 1940-1944, alcatuit de Lya Benjamin, coordonator stiintific, Sergiu Stanciu, prefata, Moses Rosen (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1993-)

  32. Expozitia "50 de ani de la martiriul evreilor din Romania", 1991, Bucharest, Romania. Expozitia "50 de ani de la martiriul evreilor din Romania" Bucuresti, 1-3 iulie 1991 Federatia Comunitatilor Evreiesti din Romania (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1991)

  33. Fior, J. H. Evreii in Anglia din adanca vechime pana la expulzarea la 1290: schita istorica [reprinted from "Anuarul pentru Israeliti, anul XIV"] (Bucuresti, 1891)

  34. Florentina H., pseud. [i.e. Florentina Herscovici]. Ratacitorul: roman (Iafo: Tipografia "Hasefer Hahadas", 1967)

  35. Fondane, Benjamin. Le voyageur n'a pas fini de voyager, textes et documents reunis et presentes par Patrice Beray et Michel Carassou (Paris: Mediterranee, 1996)

  36. Fried, Hedi. Fragments of a life: the road to Auschwitz, edited and translated from the original Swedish by Michael Meyer (London: Hale, 1990)

    Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina: ein Sammelwerk, herausgegeben von Hugo Gold (Tel-Aviv: Edition "Olamenu", 1958-[1962])

  37. Gherghely, Eduard. Progressul si Evreii in Romania (Botosiani, 1866)

  38. Halevy, Mayer A. Contributiuni la istoria Evreilor in Romania (Bucuresti, 1933)

  39. Iancu, Carol. Evreii din Romania, 1866-1919: de la exludere la emancipare, traducerea: C. Litman (Bucuresti: Editura EH Hasefer, 1996)

  40. Iancu, Carol. Les juifs en Roumanie, 1919-1938: de l'emancipation a la marginalisation, preface de Pierre Guiral, postface de Gerard Nahon (Paris: Peeters, 1996)

  41. Iancu, Carol. Les juifs en Roumanie, 1866-1919 (Aix-en-Provence: Editions de l'Universite de Provence, 1978)

  42. Ianosi, Ion. Moralitati idei inoportune ([Bucuresti]: Cartea Romaneasca,1995)

  43. Israel Bar-Avi: istoriograf, bio-bibliograf, critic literar, conducatorul cenaclului; volum inchinat jubileului scriitoricesc, 25 ani ca autor de carti (1944-1969) 35 ani in publicistica (1934-1969), colaboreaza: Debora Landman [et al.] (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1969)

  44. Izvoare si marturii referitoare la Evreii din Romania, volum intocmit de Victor Eskenasy, cuvint inainte de Moses Rosen (Bucuresti: Federatia Comunitatilor Evreiesti din Republica Socialista Romania, Centrul de Documentare, 1986-)

  45. Jaffre, Jeffrey. Stepson of a people (Montreal: Admiral Printing, c1968)

  46. Jagendorf, Siegfried. Jagendorf's foundry: memoir of the Romanian Holocaust, 1941-1944, introduction and commentaries by Aron Hirt-Manheimer (New York: HarperCollins, c1991)

  47. Jews and Judaism in East European publications, 1945- 1970, edited by B. Pinkus [Pt. 2:  Rumania: a bibliography, compiled by M. Shohat] (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, Center for Documentation of East European Jewry, 1973)

  48. The Jews of Rumania in modern times (Tel Aviv: Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora)

  49. Kara, I. Inscriptii ebraice, Stela Cheptea (Iasi: Academia Romana, Filiala Iasi, Centrul de Istorie si Civilizatie Europeana, 1994)

  50. Kara, I. Obstea evreiasca din-- Podu Iloaiei file din istoria unui "stetl" moldovenesc (Bucuresti: Hasefer, 1990)

  51. Kluback, William. Benjamin Fondane: a poet in exile (New York: P. Lang, c1996)

  52. Kuller, Hary. Presa evreiasca bucuresteana: 1857-1994 (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1996) [YA.1999.a.6307]

  53. Lazar, Samson. Figuri ale obstei evreesti; proza Poezia rezistentei; versuri [De] Samson Lazar (Lascar Saraga) Volum postum ingrijit si prefatat cu esseul Samson Lazar, omul-opera de Israel Bar-Avi (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1969) [YA.1991.b.6046]

  54. Lecca, Radu. Eu i-am salvat pe evreii din Romania, editie ingrijita, studiu introductiv si note de Alexandru V. Dita cu o prefata de Dan Zamfirescu (Bucuresti: Editura Roza Vanturilor, 1994)

  55. Lentin, Ronit. Night train to mother (Dublin: Attic Press, 1989)

  56. Lingvisti si filologi evrei din Romania, prezentare si antologie de Lucia Wald (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1996)Lustig, Oliver. Jurnal insingerat: roman (Bucuresti: Editura Militara, 1987)

  57. Manuila, Sabin. Populatia evreiasca din Romania in timpul celui de-al doilea razboi mondial / The Jewish population in Romania during World War II, Sabin Manuila si Wilhelm Filderman, introducere de Larry Watts, editor, Kurt W. Treptow (Iasi: The Romanian Cultural Foundation, 1994)

  58. Marcus, Henry. Din vremuri de urgie amintiri (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1966)

  59. Marius, Mircu. Dosar Ana Pauker, prezenta editie estealcatuita de Mihai Stoian, cu consimtamintul autorului (Bucuresti: Editura "Gutenberg - Casa Cartii", 1991)

  60. Martirilor din fundul marii, 1942-1972, culegere intocmita de Israel Bar-Avi si Iosephine Feinstein (Ierusalim: Cenaclul Literar Menora, 1972)

  61. Martiriul evreilor din Romania: 1940-1944: documente si marturii, cuvint inainte, Moses Rosen [volum intocmit de J. Alexandru ... et al.; S. Stanciu, redactor responsabil] (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1991)

  62. Maur, Mose. Roman de moravuri ([Iaffo]: Tipografia "Hasefer Hahadas", 1969), 3 vol

  63. Ojtser: das Schtetl in der Moldau und Bukowina heute, text von Renata M.Erich, Photographien von Edmund Hofer (Wien: C. Brandstetter, 1988)

  64. Ostfeld, Klara. Luz y sombra de mi vida: memorias (editado por Hillo Ostfeld) (Caracas: Arte, 1986) Paizer, Eliahu. Cintecul baracii (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1969)

  65. Pilon, Juliana Geran. Notes from the other side of night, with an introduction by Mircea Eliade (Lanham; London:  University Press of America, 1994)

  66. Riza, Adrian. Retelele omeniei, prefata de Raoul Sorban (Bucuresti: Editura R.A.I, 1995)

  67. Roman, Viorel S. Imperiul, evreii si romanii (Timisoara: Editura Helicon, 1994)

  68. Romanian census records (Teaneck, N.J.: Distributed by Avotaynu, Inc., c1995)

  69. Rosen, Avram. Participarea evreilor la dezvoltarea industriala a Bucurestiului: din a doua jumatate a secolului al XIX-lea pana in anul 1938, cuvant inainte de Nicolae Cajal, prefata de Gheorghe Zaman (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1995)

  70. Safran, Alexandre. Resisting the storm: Romania, 1940- 1947: memoirs, edited and annotated by Jean Ancel (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1987)

  71. Safran, David. Amintiri ([Iafo; Tel-Aviv]: Editura Hasefer, [1972?]) (Creatorii de elita ai judaismului roman, no.11.)

  72. Safran, David. Gog si Magog. Roman(Iafo; Tel Aviv: Editura Hasefer, 1973. (Creatorii de elita ai judaismului roman, no.12.)

  73. Safran, David. Patria mea in razboiul de sase zile (Iafo; Tel-Aviv: Editura "Hasefer", 1968) (Creatorii de elita ai judaismului roman, no.8)

  74. Safran, David. Arta de a citi ([Jafo]: Editura Hasefer, [1970?]) (Creatorii de elita ai judaismului roman, no.10

  75. Safran, David. Cronica rebeliunii legionare. Amintiri care ard (Iafo; Tel-Aviv: Editura Hasefer, 1967) (Creatorii de elita ai judaismului roman, no.7)

  76. Safran, David. Templul tineretii mele, prefata de Israel Bar-Avi (Jerusalim: Cenaclul Literar "Menora", 1964)

  77. Sari, Achile. Pohod na Sibir!: speranta care a surpat "Portile Iadului" (Bucuresti: Editura Venus, 1994)

  78. Schwarzfeld, Moses. Momente din istoria Evreilor in Romania de la inceput pana la mijlocul acestui veac (Bucuresti, 1889)

  79. Shattered! 50 years of silence: history and voices of the tragedy in Romania and Transnistria [compiled] by Felicia (Steigman) Carmelly on behalf of the Transnistria Survivors Association Toronto (Scarborough, Ont.: Abbeyfield, 1997)

  80. Siperco, Andrei. Crucea Rosie Internationala si Romania in perioada celui, de-al Doilea Razboi mondial (1 Septembrie 1939-23 august 1944 ) prizonierii de razboi anglo-americani si sovietici; deportatii evrei din Transnistria si emigrarea evreilor in Palestina in atentia Crucii Rosii Internationale (Bucuresti: Editura Enciclopedica, 1997)

  81. Solheim, Magne. Im Schatten von Hakenkreuz, Hammer und Sichel, Judenmission or im Rumonien 1937-1948, aus dem Norwegischen Obersetzt von Cilgia Solheim (Erlangen: Verlag der Ev.-Luth. Mission,  1986)

  82. Sternberg, Ghitta. Stefanesti: portrait of a Romanian shtetl (Oxford: Pergamon, 1984)

  83. Stoian, Mihai. Ultima cursa de la Struma la Mefkure (Bucuresti: Editura Hasefer, 1995)

  84. Studia et acta historiae Iudaeorum Romaniae. 1- (Jassy: Romanian Academy, A.D. Xenopol Institute of History; Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, Diaspora Research Institute, Goldstein-Goren Center for the History of the Jews in Romania, 1996-)

  85. Volovici, Leon. Nationalist ideology and antisemitism: the case of Romanian intellectuals in the 1930s, translated from the Romanian by Charles Kormos (Oxford: published for the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA), the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1991)

  86. "War einer Hersch, Fuhrmann": Leben und Leiden der Juden von Oberwischau: Erinnerungsgesprche, [herausgegeben von] Klaus Stephani (Frankfurt am Main: Hain, 1991)

  87. Welter, Beate. Die Judenpolitik der rum?nischen Regierung 1866-1888 (Frankfurt am Main; New York: P. Lang, 1989)

  88. Wurmbrand, Richard. Christ on the Jewish road (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975)

Bukovina: [October 2000]

A photographic essay of abandoned Jewish cemeteries in Europe by Ruth Ellen Gruber .

Minna Rozen, Department of History, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel researches cemeteries in Romania. Contact her for more information.

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
1202 WARMBACH: see Hoghiz
1204 YOED, YOID: see IEUD
1206 ZALATHNA: see Zlatna
1207 ZALAU: Salaj county [Zilah, Zillenmarkt, Waltenberg, Zelau,
1208 ZAM: Hunedoara judet
1209 Z?u (ZAU): see Zaud de Campie
1210 ZAU de CAMPIE: Mures county, Transylvania
1211 ZAZ?R: see S?S?r:
1212 ZERIND: Arad County, Transylvania
1213 ZILAH: see ZALAU
1215 ZIMBOR: Salaj judet [Magyarnagyzsombor, Magyarysombor, Zutor, Zimborul-Mare, Zimborul]
1216 ZLATNA: Alba jud, [Strijaret]
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