|TOMASZOW MAZOWIECKI: Lodzkie|
Alternate names: Tomaszów Mazowiecki [Pol], Томашув-Мазовецки [Rus], טומאשוב מאזובייצקי [Yid], Tomashov Khadash, Tomashov Pyetirkov, Tomashov Ravski, Tomashuv Mazovyetsk, Tomashuv Mazovyetski, Tomaszów Piotrków, Tomaszów Rawski, Tomaszów. 51°32' N, 20°01' E, 28 miles ESE of Łódź, 17 miles ENE of Piotrków Trybunalski. Jewish population: 11,310 (in 1931). This town in central Poland with 67,159 inhabitants in 2004 in the Łódź Voivodeship since 1999 was previously part of Piotrków Trybunalski Voivodeship (1975-1998). The town is situated on the banks of three rivers-Pilica, Wolbórka and Czarna Bielina, near the Zalew Sulejowski reservoir and at the edge of the Puszcza Spalska wilderness area. [July 2009]
Tomaszów Mazowiecki had about 13,000 Jews just before WWII. The city owes its boom since 1815 to Count Antonie Ostrowskie, author of a book about gender equality. His friend Jakow Steinman with other Jews, who had immigrated to Germany, brought capital investments that resulted in the textile industry. Tomaszow Chassids called it "Tejma Szaw" (unclean), because the Jews worked in factories on Saturday. In 1831, the kahal in Tomaszów Mazowiecki became independent and built a beautiful synagogue. They also had a beit midrash, 17 Chasidic houses of prayer (stiblach), a number of philanthropic associations, and after 1920, a Polish-Hebrew gymnasium. In autumn 1939, the Nazis burned the synagogue and beit midrash. A ghetto created in December 1940 eventually housed 16,000 Jews. Many sent to labor camps or killed here. In 1942, mass deportations to Treblinka commenced. The last Jews of the ghetto were sent to Starachowice in May and September 1943. [July 2009]
CEMETERY: Founded in 1831 on almost 3-hectares given to the Jews by Count Ostrowski, the main entrance is on ul Grota-Roweckiego. During WWII, the cemetery was partially destroyed by the Germans. The Jewish ghetto police buried the dead and murdered Jewish adults and children murdered by the police for trying to escape the ghetto in search of food here without Jewish rites or family in attendance. The road to the cemetery had bloodstains. They just emptied the bodies into mass graves with victims of typhus and torture. Later, the Nazis stole gravestones to pave the streets. In 1999, the cemetery still was neglected, clogged with dense vegetation and trees although about 1,002 matzevot remain. A few broken tree trunk gravestones symbolizing life tragically interruptedcan be found. That year, on ul Mościckiego, gravestones were found. Most inscriptions are in Hebrew with quite varied symbolism including Mogen David, candles, boxes, Cohanim blessing hands, bowls, books, lions, and beautifully executed crowns. At the main gate, the recovered gravestones are placed randomly. At the beginning of the main avenue a symbolic tomb was built commemorating Jews tortured to death by the Nazis. Beside it is the mass grave of twenty-one killed by the German in 1943 on Purim Several matzevot on the right side of the main avenue are in the women's section. The ruined ohel of Jacob ben Abraham Elijah Tomaszow (d 27 May 1888) and head of the bet din in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. In the west portion without dense scrub, only one gravestone remains. A detailed inventory of surviving gravestones were made in 1995-1996 by the late Benjamin Yaari-Wald is in book form in Israel. Additional information:
[July 2009]TOMASZOW-MAZOWIECKI: An organization of this community, with over 100 members, exists in Israel. It is headed by committee of 11 members, 5 of whom are second generation, born in Israel. They help preserve the heritage and memory of the Jewish Community of Tomaszow together with all the other communities perished in the Holocaust. They erected a very impressive memorial in the cemetery of Holon, Israel and planted a wood of 15,000 trees in the Jerusalem mountains, numbering city members who perished in Treblinka. The Gordon School in Raanana that adopted our community arranges a special annual assembly for our members, the pupils, and their parents. In 1960, our organization published the Yizkor Book of Tomaszow.
In August 1993, the Assocation of Jews of Tomaszow fenced the entire cemetery and erected a monument with the retrieved matsevot around it. Source: US Commission 
A Pole bought a house two years ago. In the garden, he found 13 Jewish tombstones. Investigation revealed that the Gestapo used the yard and house. They removed the stones from the cemetery to pave the yard. Benjamin Yaari, chairman of the TM organization in Israel, managed to return all the matzevot to the Jewish cemetery on 30 April 1999. The stones were placed in an impressive monument on the wall of the cemetery. The names on the tombstones have been included in the list above. [Source? 1999]
US Commission No. POCE000037
Alternate name: Tomaszow Rawski. Tomaszow Mazowiecki is located in Piotrkow at 51º31 20º01, 28 km. from Piotrkow, 55 km. from Lodz. The cemetery is located at 18 Stycrnia No. 41, Smutna No. 12. Present population is 25,000-100,000 with no Jews.
The earliest known Jewish community was 1820. 1921 Jewish population was 10,070, 35.6%. The Jewish community was founded in 1831. Buried in the Orthodox cemetery were Tzaddik Jacob Elijahu, son of Abraham haCohan, who died 1888. The urban flat land, separate but near cemeteries, has a sign or plaque in Polish mentioning the Holocaust. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with a continuous masonry wall and non-locking gate. 500-5000 stones, most in original location, date from 1843, 1847 to 20th century. The cemetery has no special sections. The sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or sculpted monuments have Hebrew and Polish inscriptions. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims and marked mass graves. Within the limits is an ohel. The property used for Jewish cemetery (closed). Properties adjacent are residential and municipal cemetery. The cemetery boundaries are unchanged since 1939. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II. Only maintenance was transportation of some stones from the city back to the cemetery. They are stored and not re-erected. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion, pollution and vandalism.
Jan Pawet Woronczak, Sandomierska Str. 21m, 1; 02-567 Warszawa; tel. 49-54-62 completed this survey on 8 Sep 1991. The site was not visited.
|Last Updated on Sunday, 19 July 2009 15:59|