Pasłęk, Preussen Holland, Preussisch Holad, Preussisch Holland. 54°04' N 19°40' E, 137.1 miles NNW of Warszawa. "Prussian Holland") is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship with 12,195 inhabitants in 2004. Gmina Pasłęk is an urban-rural administrative district in Elbląg powiat, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in northern Poland with its seat is the town of Pasłęk, 18 km (11 mi) E of Elbląg and 63 km (39 mi) NW of the regional capital Olsztyn. The gmina 2006 total population was 19,323. Beside the town of Pasłęk, Gmina Pasłęk contains the villages and settlements of Anglity, Aniołowo, Awajki, Bądy, Borzynowo, Brzeziny, Cierpkie, Czarna Góra, Dargowo, Dawidy, Drulity, Gibity, Gołąbki, Gryżyna, Gulbity, Kajmy, Kalinowo, Kąty, Kawki, Kielminek, Kopina, Krasin, Kronin, Krosienko, Krosno, Krosno-Młyn, Kudyński Bór, Kudyny, Kupin, Kwitajny, Łączna, Leszczyna, Leżnice, Łukszty, Majki, Marianka, Marzewo, Nowa Wieś, Nowe Kusy, Nowiny, Nowy Cieszyn, Owczarnia, Piniewo, Pochylnia Kąty, Pochylnia Nowy Całun, Pochylnia Oleśnica, Pólko, Robity, Rogajny, Rogowo, Rydzówka, Rzeczna, Rzędy, Sakówko, Sałkowice, Siódmak, Skolimowo, Sokółka, Stare Kusy, Stegny, Surowe, Tolpity, Tulno, Wakarowo, Wikrowo, Wójtowizna, Zielno, Zielonka Pasłęcka and Zielony Grąd.
The Jews came to the Pasłęk primarily from Pomerania, East Prussia. The first document about Jews in Pasłęk comes from 1779, when someone lodged a complaint about competition from Jewish merchants. The presence of Jews was challenging for urban craftsmen, who therefore, used the power of local regulations to place restrictions on the Jews that precluded residency except for laborers. They could not remain in one place more than 24 hours and only to trade outside the city gates or in villages. Not until March 11,1812 when the edict granted permanent settlement of Jews in Prussia and full civil rights could they live in this town. Almost all the Jews were involved in trade, some significantly such as the Arisów family, who controlled the local grain trade and headed the kahal and its synagogue, mikvah, school and other public services. In 1817, the cemetery and beit midrash were established. In 1826 a swimming pool was built on Canal Mill. In 1836, the first synagogue was built and was replaced in 1878. In 1895, they founded a school. Finally a massive brick synagogue with a sloping roof and a statue of Moses holding the Ten Commandments was built at the end of ul. Krasickiego and ul. Dąbrowskiego. The aron kodesh held seven torahs with a Hebrew inscription ("Eternal Temple") held by two gold lions and an eagle with outstretched wings. On the bimah table was a cloth with a red shield and the words "Mogen David" and a two candles. On both sides were the men's benches. On the other side of the synagogue was the women's section. The synagogue was dedicated on July 24, 1878. In 1864, Pasłęk had 160 Jews and in 1880 years, 175, with the number is steadily decreasing due to worsening economic conditions and WW I. Although 104 remained in 1903, by 1933 only 41 Jews lived there. With the Nazi rise to power, these Jews were subjected to increasing harassment, an economic boycott, and physical attacks. In 1938, the synagogue building that had been sold was set afire during Kristallnacht. Nazi repression chased the last Jew from Pasłęk to a death camp in 1942. story of orphaned Jew from this town. [June 2009]CEMETERY: On the outskirts of the city on a hill unsuitable for development where the land was cheaper in 1817, this site is the current ul Wojska Polskiego, bought from the baker for 30 talarów. In 1864, additional land was bought from the confectioner Zachowskiego Dwuetapowość. The oldest graves are in the northwest and newer in the south, clearly differentiated by the arrangement of rows and materials used. By the end of the 19th century, a solid brick wall surrounded the irregularly shaped cemetery. The original Wojska Polskiego iron entrance gate was also part of the southern brick wall was the only entrance. The building on the right side of the gate in the southeast corner was probably the tahara. Expansion of the city in the first half of the 19th century led to closure of this access to the cemetery. The cemetery was inactive prior to 1939. Once 100 x 50 m, the current area is much smaller. On the south and east is the original wall and from the east is the old foundation with a metal mesh belonging to the building business. On the north without security is a natural about two-meter slope. With more than a hundred burials, but only thirty gravestones, mostly sandstone and a few marble with inscriptions both Hebrew (front) and German (side) on some difficult to read, most matzevot are classical, but some are the traditional semicircular shape, facing east, with rich symbolic and decorative ornamentation including stylized frame, snake plant, crown, roses, pen and geometric elements, hourglass, broken tree and Mogen David. Matzevot fragments include a stone broken tree. Gravestones probably were made in workshops in Elbląg Braniewie as the signatures found on matzevot read C. Mathias, Elbing and S. Goldbaum, Braunsberg. Maple and ash grow in the cemetery, as does a majestic, nearly two hundred year-old lime-tree. Lilacs, blackberry, raspberry, and other flowering shrubs abound. Vine and weeds including stinging nettles cover the entire site. Anemones and other flowering annuals seem to self-seed. The overall state of preservation of the cemetery is sad with inadequate protection from the north. Ground litter, fallen or broken gravestones, and the vegetation are problems. Part of the matzevot survives intact, but a small number are fallen. Fragments of broken matzevot can be found throughout the cemetery, scattered or buried. A big problem is the slope on the north side causing landslides and threatens the land on the edge of the cemetery with the best-preserved matzevot. In 1996, students from the Circle of History at the school took an interest in the cemetery. photos. [June 2009]
US Commission No. POCE000764
Paslek is located in region Elblaskie / Elblzy at 54º04 19º40, 75 km ESE of Gdansk. The cemetery is located on Wojska Polskiego Street. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with no Jews.
The earliest known Jewish community was 1813. 1933 Jewish population was 83. Effecting the Jewish community was 'Judenedikt' in 1812. The Orthodox and Progressive/Reform Jewish cemetery was established in the 19th century. Landmarked: "137/90-Rejestr Zabytkow wojewodztwa elbluskiego." The isolated suburban flat land, on the edge of a deep ravine has no sign or marker. A broken masonry wall without gate surrounds it. Reached by turning directly off a public road (The road goes along the edge of the ravine, behind the street buildings.), access is open to all. The present size of the cemetery is about 0.25 hectares as it was before WWII. 100-500 gravestones, all in original location with less than 25% toppled or broken, date from 1860-20th century. The marble, granite, limestone, sandstone and artificial stone flat shaped stones with carved relief decorations have Hebrew and German inscriptions. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Municipality owns site used as a Jewish cemetery. Properties adjacent are residential. Occasionally, private Jewish and non-Jewish visitors and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized during W.W.II, but not in the last ten years. No maintenance. Slight threat: vandalism and incompatible nearby development (existing and planned/proposed).
Wiktor Knercer, 10-685 Olsztyn, ul. Barcza 33/16, tel. 33-86-07, who visited the site in June of 1992 completed survey in September 1992. Documentation: "Karta cmentana Psoz Elblag, Mapa wskali 1,25000 2 lat 1910-1920, Deutsches Stadtebuch-Erich Penser.
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 23 June 2009 23:42|