Alternate names: Mikołów [Pol], Nikolai [Ger], Mikulov [Cz], Nicolai in Oberschlesien, Nicolei, Mikułów. 50°10' N, 18°54' E, 9 miles SW of Katowice, 16 miles SW of Będzin (Bendin). Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), VI, pp. 414-415: "Mikułów". Mikołów (German: Nikolai, Silesian: Mikouůw) is a town in Silesia in southern Poland near Katowice that borders on the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union with a population of 2 million. Located in the Silesian Highlands on the Mąkołowiec river (a tributary of the Vistula) in the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999 and previously in Katowice Voivodeship, and before that in the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. Population: 5,294,000 people in the metropolitan area and in the town 38,698 in 2008. At the crossroads of important trade routes, such a situation attracted Jews, but the number of Jews living there increased very slowly. Jewish population: 1758-6, 1791-48; 1825-272, 1854-300; 1885-339; 1900-192; 1910-175; and 1926-74. [June 2009]
Jews first are documented in Mikołów in 1674 when the Singer family established an inn; however, they probably lived there much earlier. The synagogue in Mikołów was established in 1816. In 1816, a brick synagogue was built. The Jakubowicz family was well known since Henryk Jakubowicz was the owner of a local brick factory and from 1922-1936 chairman of the Jewish Religious Community. In January 1945, exhausted prisoners from Auschwitz were death marched through Mikołów to Germany to work in slave labor camps. In Mikołów, over 60 people died or were murdered and then buried in Jewish cemetery. Among these prisoners were also some Catholics. In 1972 the communist authority ordered the miners from the Bolesław Śmiały coalmine to detonate the synagogue. The Jewish cemetery in Mikołów was established at the end of the 19th century, but the oldest tomb dates back to 1726. Only 100 of 265 tombs are preserved. In the front of the cemetery is a memorial dedicated to the victims of January 1945. Another older Jewish cemetery (1682) was destroyed during WWII. [June 2009]
OLD CEMETERY: On the way to the outlet Tychy founded in 1680 was about one hectare. [June 2009]
NEW CEMETERY: Also served as a burial place for Jews from other Pszczyńskiej villages including Żor. Traces of this cemetery were visible until the late 1960s when housing was built. The new Jewish cemetery at ulic Starej Drogi and Żorskiej Zorski at the turn of the 18th century occupies an area approximately 0.5 hectares. Once a tahara existed; and a brick-stone wall surrounded the site. The oldest preserved matzevot comes from 1726, that of Chaim, the son of Judah Lejb, who died February 26, 1726. About 200 gravestones remain. With inscriptions in German and Hebrew, they have rich symbolism and ornamentation. The cemetery survived WWII almost intact. IIn January 1945, a "death march" of the prisoners from Auschwitz-Birkenau passed through Mikołów. Sixty of them are buried in Mikolowski cemetery, those who died from exhaustion or were shot by the Germans. Shortly afterward, on the east side of the cemetery fence, the Germans killed 14 prisoners (partisans), most likely brought by truck from the Katowice prison and left them dead for a few days before burial. Two monuments commemorate that tragedy. After the war, the cemetery began to deteriorate due to neglect. Many gravestones made of expensive stone were stolen and sold. By the 1960s, only sandstone gravestones remained except for a memorial for the grave of prisoners from Auschwitz, who died during the evacuation of the camp in January 1945. That part was well-maintained by the scouts and even received flowers. The gravedigger's hut was occupied by a Gypsy family. In 1982, the stone wall. was dismantled. In 1973, the Provincial Conservator of Historical Monuments in Katowice placed the site on the register of historic monuments. In 1988, the area has been tidied up and surrounded by a metal fence. Unfortunately, gravestones were conserved. video. [June 2009]
US Commission No AS 156
(Alternate name: Mikulow and Nicolai in German) Mikolow is located in Katowickie. The town is 15 km from Katowic. Cemetery location: the road from Mikolow to Tychy, by the former brickyard. Present town population is 25,000-100,000 without Jews.
The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. The Jewish population was 1674-1; 1758-6; 1791-48; 1825-272; 1885-339; 1910-175; 1928-74; 1931-130. In 1816, the new masonry synagogue was built. 1854 Jewish community was formally established. Living here were Leweki Mojzesz Jakobowicz (1679); Lewek Samlewicz (1714); Jozef Stebucki. The Jewish cemetery was established in 1680 with last known Conservative burial in 1814. Zory and villages around Pszczyny used this cemetery. The isolated suburban flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all without wall or gate. The size of the cemetery before WWII was 1 hectare. No sandstone gravestones remain. The cemetery was used in the 17th through 19th century. The municipality owns property used for agriculture. Properties adjacent are agricultural. The cemetery no longer exists.
Dariusz Walerjanski, ul. Sleczka 11/6, Zabrze 41-800 Poland visited site in May and completed survey 5 Oct 1994. He may have more information. No interviews.
"ulica Stara Droga, 200 tombstones. The oldest 1726." [Source? Date?]
BOOK: Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel A Guide to East-Central Europe. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992. p. 77
|Last Updated on Wednesday, 17 June 2009 13:23|