Alternate names: Krynki [Pol, Rus], Krinek, קרינקי [Yid], Krienek, Krinki, Krinok. Russian: Крынки. 53°16' N, 23°47' E, 29 miles S of Grodno, 28 miles ENE of Białystok, 16 miles SE of Sokółka. 1900 Jewish population: 3,542. Yizkors: (Krynki) (, ). Pinkas Krynki (Tel Aviv, 1970). Krinik in khurbn: memuarn (Montevideo, 1948). Bóżnice Białostocczyzny (Białystok, 1992). also used cemetery at Bialystok II. [May 2009]
CEMETERY: ShtetLink: 0.3+ acres with dense overgrowth in 2007. About 1,500 matzevot remain. Bagnowka.com: Krynki Gallery (photographed in 1988, 1998-99, 2007). The entrance is technically on the west, though road access is on the east. A broken cobble-stone wall surrounds the cemetery (Image 6). A cell tower is to the north; farmer's field to the south, with a barn that opens onto the cemetery (Image 7). The area near the barn is void of matzevoth. The cemetery is heavily overgrown, with worn matzevoth of various styles. Many rows of matzevoth remain; many matzevoth are in situ though not erect. Pathways run throughout the cemetery. The greatest threats seem to be vegetation and the weather. The inscriptions are deeply worn away by the elements, many heavy with lichen. Even removal of lichen may no longer reveal inscriptions, as many are illegible. The surface of many matzevoth is fragile to the touch. Documentation of these inscriptions is urgently needed." as of May 2007." [May 2009]
Krynki is a village almost in Belarus between Bohonik and Kruszyn. In Bialystok, commonly they say that "Krynki lies where zawracają scarecrow." [?] Krynki probably has a rich history and monuments with the layout of the city is reminiscent of the Mogen David. Like the streets of Paris, the city is split radially from the Sześciobocznego market. The names of the streets recall positions or occupations of inhabitants: There are street Browarna, Zaułek School, Zaułek Zagumienny, debauch, street Grabarną, Cerkiewne, Kościelna. Perhaps as early as 1434, there was a palace under the agreement of Krynkach King Wladyslaw Jagiello of Lithuania and the Prince Sigismund renewed union with Lithuania. In 1509 Krynki obtain the status of town that lasted until the late 1950s when it became officially a local village. Thanks to its position at the crossroads of trade routes, the city developed rapidly, but also saw war with Moscow, the Swedish Deluge, epidemics, and fires. In the 19th century, several textile factories, tanning facilities, and pottery producers existed. The 1905 revolution had an echo in Krynki when for a few days the workers tryied to create a "Republic of Krynecką". The Jewish community played an important role in the history of the city. The Jews were brought here in the 15th century to develop trade and crafts. Their number grew very rapidly in the 18th century when the Krynki kahał with seven communities was larger than the Jewish community in Bialystok. In the early 20th century, the Jewish population was 90%. The interwar period saw the mass migration of Jews to the America and Palestine. Their number in Krynki fell from 10,000 (1914) to 5,786 in 1931. After Germany's attack on the Soviet Union, Nazis created the ghetto in Krynki from 1941 to January 1943; however, the Jews gave armed resistance, killing twelve Germans. During the war, Jewish partisans led by Moses Słopaka, nicknamed "Mohryń" operated. Traces of the presence of Jews remain. In the village are religious buildings. The mid-19th century Caucasian Language Science House today is the Gmina Center of Culture and Sports. The 19th century Słonimskich Chasidic Synagogue, one of the few surviving buildings in Chasidic worship, is now used for storage. The Great Synagogue (ha-ha-Godol Beit Knesset) vandalized by the Nazis in 1944, was thoughtlessly destroyed in 1971 by municipal officials. Only fragments of walls and foundation remain. The Jewish Cemetery in Krynki founded in 1622 is slightly to the side of Zaułka Zagumiennego. One of the most interesting and best-preserved cemeteries in Podlasia, high grass hides hundreds of stone matzevot with inscriptions in Hebrew and Russian. Tomasz Wisniewski who has researched Bialostocki Jewish cultural monuments writes that a significant tombstone reada "Avoiding nationalism to the end of your days." Unfortunately, many matzevot were used as a building material. The oldest known tombstone dates back 1750. At the cemetery are graves of victims of the Nazis. One of these, for Chaim Wajner, mentions his relationship to the Jewish Historical Institute and says, "29 June 1941 year Germany took Krynki. German observers knew that Jewish families, who had fled the town, were in the fields near Krynek. On this information, a shell was shot into the fields, where refugees and several refugees were blown to shreds. Then, they killed 70 Jewish men, women and children. The scene was terrible, feet, hands, and heads detached from bodies. These the innocent victims were buried in a Jewish mass grave at the cemetery in Krynki". GPS Location: N 53 ° 16.123 'E 023 ° 46.518'. photos. [May 2009]
CEMETERY: http://www.diapozytyw.pl/en/site/slady_i_judaica/krynki [August 2005] Cemetery photos [January 2006] 2007 directions, description, and photos: "The entrance is technically on the west, though road access is on the east. A broken cobble-stone wall surrounds the cemetery (Image 6). A cell tower is to the north; farmer's field to the south, with a barn that opens onto the cemetery (Image 7). The area near the barn is void of matzevoth. The cemetery is heavily overgrown, with worn matzevoth of various styles. Many rows of matzevoth remain; many matzevoth are in situ though not erect. Pathways run throughout the cemetery. The greatest threats seem to be vegetation and the weather. The inscriptions are deeply worn away by the elements, many heavy with lichen. Even removal of lichen may no longer reveal inscriptions, as many are illegible. The surface of many matzevoth is fragile to the touch. Documentation of these inscriptions is urgently needed (Images 8-11)." [April 2009]
REFERENCE: Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel A Guide to East-Central Europe. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992. p. 51-52
US Commission No. POCE000117
Alternate name: Krynik (Yiddish). Krynki is located in Bialystok region at 53°16 23°47, 0.5 km from the center, 30km from Sokolki. 1990 population: 5,000-25,000, with no Jews.
Earliest known Jewish community was 1639. 1921 Jewish population was 3495. Living here were Rabbi Josef Hezekiel Miszkowski and Rabbi Zalman Sender Kahan Szapiro. It is also the birthplace of Jakov Pat, one of the founders of the "Bund". The Jewish cemetery was established in 1662. Buried in the Progressive/Reform, Conservative and Slonimscy Hasidic Orthodox cemetery include Rabbi Jehoszua Syn Ariego and Awigail Corka Rabina Capstejn vel Zalkin. The last known Jewish burial was 1941. Surrounding villages up to 15kms away used this landmarked cemetery. The suburban flat land and hillside, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign. Reached by turning directly off a public road and by crossing private property, access is open to all. A broken masonry wall with no gate surrounds. Before World War II, the cemetery occupied 2.85 hectares but now occupies 2.25 hectares. The smaller size is a result of housing development. 3116 visible gravestones, between 100 and 500 removed from their original positions with less than 25% toppled or broken, date from the middle of the 18th century-1941. Removed stones were incorporated into the road to Michatovo. Some stones were also removed to build a barn during the German occupation. The granite, limestone, sandstone, slate, and concrete rough stones or boulders, flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, or flat stones with carved relied decoration have Hebrew and Russian inscriptions. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces. Municipality owns property used for agriculture and waste dumping. Properties adjacent are commercial-idustrial and agricultural. Occasionally, organized individual tours, private visitors, and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II and frequently thereafter. Individuals or groups of non-Jewish origin cleaned stones in the cemetery in 1988. The cemetery has no care now. During the past few years, the more valuable stones have been stolen from the cemetery.
Tomasz Wisniewski, ul. Bema 95/99, Bialystok, Tel. 212-46 completed survey on 19/08/1991. He visited in 1987 and 1990.
NOTE [ESR]: In his book, A Guide to Jewish Bialystok published in 1998, Wisniewski states on page 85 that the cemetery contains 3,000 mazevot dating from the mid-18th century. He also notes a stone wall "with numbers inscribed identifying the rows of the buried. This was done by members of the Hewre Kadish Society who have maintained the cemetery.
Photo courtesy Marla Osborne [April 2015].
|Last Updated on Monday, 20 April 2015 03:44|