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KROSNO: Podkarpackie [KROSSEN ] PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Krosno [Pol, Yid], Krossen [Ger] 49°41' N, 21°47' E, 100 miles W of L'viv (Lvov), 42 miles ESE of Tarnów, 27 miles SSW of Rzeszów. Jewish population: 327 (in 1880), 1,725 (in 1921).

CEMETERY:

The exact date of the cemetery's established is unknown, probably the end of the 19th century, but first documentation of Jewish presence in Krosno is from the first half of 15th century: the activities of two brothers and Nachema Lazara of Ransburga whom Wladyslaw Jagiello allow to settle in Krosno. Jewish residence ended in 1569, however, when Krosno obtained a royal privilege of "de non tolerandis judeis." In 1700, the Council of the City of Krosno issued a resolution that stated "the killing of Jews or spoliation of Rymanow is not subject to punishment." From the late 17th century until 1851, no Jews settled permanently in the city. The Jewish population was engaged in trade of live cattle, corn, and other agricultural products, furs, leather, construction materials, machinery and agricultural products. Jewish organizations provided for the needs of religious Jews. Krosno kahal founded on January 1, 1900 included Jews from 37 surroundings villages. Jews lived at the market and on the streets Blich, Forteczna, Franciszkańska, Ordynacka, Piłsudskiego, Słowackiego and Sienkiewicza. Samuel Ozone Fuhrer became rabbi in 1904, the only rabbi ever in Krosno. 1938 Jewish population was 2,729 Jews (18%) of 14,752. At the outbreak of WWII, most of the Jews fled. A few days after entering, Wehrmacht troops into Krosna murdered 12 Jews from Krosno and Jaslo in the forest in Warzycach. For Jews who remained, a Judenrat was set up in 1940. Nazis took Jewish inhabitants aged 14-60 for forced labor. Some were closed in a specially created labor camp in Krosno from August 1942, subject to the Luftwaffe command. The biggest wave of displacement in the "final solution of the Jewish question" was the summer months 1942 when the municipal members of the Krosno Gestapo held the first selection among the Krosno Jewish population on August 10, 1942. Some were taken to Belzec (approximately 1,000 people) and Pent ghetto; the elderly, the sick and children were taken to Brzozowa forest and murdered; at the cemetery in Krosno, 120 Jews were murdered. On the same day, a ghetto was created on one street in the city (ulica Franciszkańska} where 12 buildings held about 600 people. On December 4, 1942, the Nazis began liquidation of that ghetto taking the Jews to the ghetto in Rzeszow. In autumn 1943, most others still alive Jews were sent to the Belzec death camp and the criminal camp in Szebniach, where after 4 months all went to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Normal 0 The synagogue on the steep slope of the entry of Słowackiego street survived the war, but was dismantled in the late 1940s. The Nazis devastated the cemetery on the corner pf Zawodziu Goszczyńskiego with the gate to the cemetery located on Fr. Sarny Street. Most matzevot were stolen and exported. In the cemetery were mass executions. In 1946, thanks to the efforts of Holocaust survivors from Krosno, those victims were transferred many stolen gravestones to the cemetery in 1946. In the 1960s, trying to set the gravestones in the right places was an extremely difficult task. The cemetery fell into oblivion. At the end of the 1980s, the Nissenbaum Foundation repaired fences and made the initial order. The abandoned cemetery's devastation and dense bushes and trees practically prevented access to the graves. This changed in 2002 when a group of young Krośnian Association Olszowka", under the direction of Gregory Bożka (local teacher and environmental activist) went to work. With a little help from the municipality and the Jewish communities over the next four years until 2005 these young people sweated grubbing bushes and removing rubbish. The renovated the cemetery gate and mounted new and well-secured information boards, removed unimaginable amounts of scrub and cut out tons of rubbish. On 3 July 2005, the Embassy of Israel and the Jewish Historical Institute granted Grzegorz Bożkowi an honorary diploma for the activities to protect the heritage of Jewish culture in Poland. Honorable mention "granted to extraordinary Poles, Polish organizations and cities, making the discovery of truth for many of the past and build a better future." Currently the cemetery is one of the best organized Jewish cemeteries in Poland. Association Olszowka "goes beyond that. Grzegorz Bożek said: ‘In addition to renewing the cemetery out of an educational action, in June 2003, at the cemetery was a lecture on the history of krośnieńskich Jews and the Jewish cemetery presented by Dr. Elizabeth Nimble, author of historical works on the Jews in Krosno. Krośno schoolteachers at the cemetery held history and language classes conducted by members of the Polish Association Olszowka. Approximately two hundred gravestones remain, the vast majority mass gravestones of sandstone. The graves have characteristic Jewish sepulchral symbols such as Cohanim blessing hands, crowns, candlesticks, bowls, lions, grapes, and Mogen David. Most inscriptions are in Hebrew with English epitaphs. A lack of ongoing maintenance destroyed what was once polychrome on Jewish tombstones with only traces of the dye remaining. Despite the damage row layout burials and the men's and women's sections can be discerned. The Bernard Münz monument shaped like a broken tree is distinctive, but commonly built for persons who died at a young age. The prewar brick wall remains only in part and not at the beit tahara for burial preparation and where the caretaker lived. At the entrance is the pump used to wash before leaving the cemetery. The cemetery is located at ul. ks. Fr. Sarny at dzielnicy Zawodzie. The keys to the gate are kept in the town office, but you can enter through a breach in the side of the wall. Krosno Museum of Craft has "the Jewish population in Krosno" (three notebooks, available in bookstores including The Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw). e-mail This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it for information about it. n autumn 2008 years Association Olszowka "in cooperation with the Museum in Krosno issued two postcards showing the krośnieńskich Jews and the local synagogue. Postcards can be obtained free of charge from Bozka who will welcome even small donations for the renewal of the Jewish cemetery in Krosno. Photos. ShtetLink. Map. photo. photo. video.  [May 2009]

BOOK:  "mostly destroyed." Source: Cohen, Chester G. "Jewish Cemeteries in Southern Poland" from `An Epilogue' in Shtetl Finder. 1980.

US Commission No. POCE000726

Krosno is located in Krosno at 49°42' 21°46', and is 67 km from Rzeszow. Cemetery location: ul. Okrzei. Present town population is 25,000-100,000 with no Jews.

  • Town: Urzad Miejski, Rynek 1, 38-400 Krosno, tel. 206-56, telex. 65254 (Prezydent).
  • Regional: Wojewodzki Konserwator Zabytkow-mgr. Alojzy Cabata, ul. Bieszczadzka 1, tel. 21-974.
  • Earliest known Jewish community was in 1439. 1921 Jewish population was 1725. Orthodox Jews used this landmarked isolated urban hillside with a sign or marker in local language mentioning Jews. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with a fence and non-locking gate. The size of the cemetery before WWII and now is 0.66 hectares. 20-100 gravestonesin original locations with 25-50% toppled or broken date from 19th century. The marble, sandstone, and concrete finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decorations or sculpted monuments have Hebrew and Polish inscriptions. There are unmarked mass graves. Property is used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are recreational and residential. Private visitors visit rarely. The cemetery, vandalized during WWII, has no maintenance or care. There are no structures. Erosion and vegetation are moderate threats.
  • Piotr Antoniak, ul. Dobora 5 m 36, 05-800 Przszkon visited site 6 Aug. 1992 and completed survey 10 Sept 1992.
Last Updated on Monday, 04 August 2014 13:43
 
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