|KROSCIENKO nad DUNAJCEM: Małopolskie|
Alternate names: Krościenko [Pol], Kroshtzinka [Yid], Krościenko nad Dunajcem, Kroschenko. 49°26' N, 20°25' E, 50 miles SSE of Kraków, 19 miles SW of Nowy Sącz, 18 miles ESE of Nowy Targ, near the Slovak border. 1900 Jewish population: 239. Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), IV, pp. 700-702: "Krościenko". Krościenko nad Dunajcem is a village in southern Poland in Nowy Targ powiat in Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999 and previously in Nowy Sącz Voivodeship from 1975-1998. City rights were given to Krościenko by Kazimierz Wielki in 1348. Krościenko nad Dunajec, 5 miles from Szczawnica, is a small village at the foot of Pieniny, once a settlement for no longest extant Pienińskiego Castle of Casimir the Great in 1348 on Via Regia, the merchant route from Hungary and the Baltic Sea that runs through the valley canyon. Traditionally, the river from the mountains floats plants and other goods. Krościenka constructed dams before World War II and even planned construction of a railway along the river to Nowy Sacz, but the war ended those plans. Currently, the city can be reached along the 9km Dunajec River Gorge. Coming to Jan III Sobieski Street on the left hand is a beautiful panorama of hills and river, particularly colorful and picturesque in autumn. On the other side of the valley, this steep slope runs almost at the road where a copse and the old fence with a rusty gate and corroded padlock indicates that the site is unkempt. A beaten path in the thicket leads to the old Jewish cemetery of a few ares [Note: Ares are not acres]. The only information is a brief mention in the village that in the mid-19th century Jews lived this area. In fact, documented Jewish settlement in the city dates from the second half of the 18th century. "Geographical Dictionary of the Polish Kingdom and Other Slavic Countries," described Krościenko: "In 1777, there were 167 homes, residents of 734 (among them five Jews), in 1799 houses 183, residents of 1120 (among them 18 Jews) in the 1824 houses 225, residents of 1214 (among them 14 Jews)." In the 19th century, local authorities bought Henryk Gross, who sometimes provided them with Jews to lease of the factory. In 1900, 239 Jews lived there, many of whom Chassidim. In November 1918, an anti-Semitic riot occurred in which some Jews were beaten. 1921 census: 233 Jews (12.6%}. After the outbreak of WWII, the Nazis increasingly repressed the Jewish population. On August 30, 1942 Krościenka Jews were deported to Nowy Targ and later to work camps and Belzec. Little remains of the old cemetery. Among the thick vegetation are graves and fallen gravestones, some legible. Some graves were deliberately destroyed. How much of the destruction of the cemetery was the Nazis and how much time and nature is hard to know. During WWII, they tried to create a separate highlanders state - Goralenvolk - so the terror in the area was less than in the rest of Polish territory. [May 2009]
CEMETERY: Unlike other places, where gravestones were used as building material, here the cemetery simply was abandoned when the Jewish inhabitants were slaughtered or fled. Most Jews left the area in 1939 for Slovakia, but met just another Nazis slaughter. A few managed to survive by hiding in Polish homes. Certainly for many years, no one was interested in the cemetery. The trees planted grew to large sizes after the majority of Polish Jews left in the 1950s. Still, in the midst of trees and bushes is a lonely grave, looking completely new and very legible, that Leopold Krumholz. The inscription says "You buried an honest and honorable man, Gewir [Hebrew for someone of high standing], Mr. Jehuda Krumholz, son of Mr. Icchak of blessed memory. Jehudo, your brothers, you'll thank. [Podążałeś?] by your ancestors. [przysługi?] done to people of your city. Your right hand shall assist the poor. The heavens have called you out of your home. On 29 Adar II 5692 his lofty soul to heaven. May his soul be bound up in the crown of life eternal. 29 Adar II 5692" [April 6, 1932] Leopold Krumholz lived near the cemetery entrance and was one of the wealthiest inhabitants, the owner of the majority of boarding houses in this village. By whom and when the new Leopold Krumholz gravestone was placed is unknown, but it is newer than the rest of tombstones. Krosnieńska cemetery likely served both Krościenka Dunajec and nearby villages. Cemetery coordinates: N49.44 E20.42. The cemetery is located on a slope. The gate is not closed. Photos. general history. [May 2009]
US Commission No. POCE000743
The town is located at 49°26' N 20°25' E in Nowy Sacz province, 43 km from Nowy Scaz and 147 km from Cracow. Cemetery: on Sobieskiego Street. Present population is 1,000-5,000 with no Jews.
1921 Orthodox Jewish population was 233. The isolated suburban hillside has no sign or marker. Reached by crossing private property, a continuous fence with locking gate surrounds. Access is by permission. The area of the unlandmarked cemetery is approximately .8 square hectares, its approximate size prior to WWII. There are no structures. There is one modern granite matseva with Hebrew and Polish inscriptions. There are no known mass graves. The property remains as a Jewish cemetery. Adjacent property is residential, agricultural and commercial. Private visitors visit rarely. The cemetery has a regular caretaker. The cemetery was vandalized during WWII. In 1989, local municipality re-erected stones and fixed a wall. Overgrowth of vegetation is a seasonal problem preventing access. Weather erosion and vegetation are listed as only slight threats.
Piotr Antonial, ul Dobro 5 m 36, 05-800 Pruszkai [see Bobowa] completed survey on September 10, 1992 after a visit in August, 1992. Marian Cepuch, Kroscienko ul. Sobieskiego 27 was interviewed.
|Last Updated on Thursday, 11 June 2009 02:02|