Alternate names: Kraków [Pol], Krakau [Ger], Kroke, קראָקע [Yid], Cracow [Eng], Cracovie [Fr], Cracovia [Sp, Ital], Krakov [Rus, Cz, Slov], Krakiv [Ukr], Krakkó [Hun], Krakova [Latv], Krako, Krakoy, Krakuv. 50°05' N, 19°55' E. 1900 Jewish population: 26,000. Yizkors: Sefer Kroke, ir va-em be-yisrael (Jerusalem, 1959). Dape hantsahat le-kehilat Krakow (Tel Aviv, 1969). Arim ve-imahot be-yisrael; matsevet kodesh le-kehilot yisrael she-nehrevu bi-yedei aritsim u-tmeim be-milhemet ha-olam ha-aharona, vol. 2 (Jerusalem, 1948). Hayehudim Be'Krakow (Haifa, 1983). Jews who lived in Germany registered in Krakow ghetto in 1940 (, ) Kraków is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland and a popular tourist location for its academic, cultural, economic, and artistic life. The World Heritage Site is the historic center. On the Vistula river (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century and was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Kraków from 1846 to 1918, and the capital of Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1999. Krakow now is the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. Kraków was an influential center of Jewish life, from Orthodox to Chasidic to Reform. Temple photo. [June 2009]
photos: Old Cemetery and New Cemetery [October 2000]
ShtetlLink for Krakow has pictures and much information. [February 2002]
photographic essay of abandoned Jewish cemeteries in Europe by Ruth Gruber [September 2002]
photos. [August 2005]
Description and pictures: Vandals desecrated tombstones in Kazimierz, the ancient Jewish quarter of Krakow. Source: Dateline World Jewry; World Jewish Congress. 4/1997
Cemetery Remuh: REMU Cemetery -pictures. Book: Cohen, Chester G. "Jewish Cemeteries in Southern Poland" from `An Epilogue' in Shtetl Finder. 1980.
The origins of the very first Jewish cemetery in Krakow and Kazimierz dates from when Jews buried their dead near the Old Synagogue, current Square Street. Majer Balaban's 1929 Historical Monuments of Jews in Poland says of this medieval Jewish cemetery: "Kraków's oldest Jewish cemetery near the gate Szewska, in the area of today's Plantowa Karmelicka was abolished in early 1495 when the Jews were expelled from Krakow to Kazimierz, but the second Jewish cemetery in Krakow was not tested at all. In the middle of a street in Kazimierz Szeroka, it is rectangular and walled, and that even before WWI had illegible stones ... [one] should take spade in hand and dig in the ground, and then find out who was buried. This area probably was part of a larger cemetery, which still surrounds Remuh Synagogue." In turn, Bogusław Krasnowolski in his study entitled "The Development of Urban Architecture of Jewish Krakow Kazimierz " (Krzysztofory, No. 15), based on the 1524 record "piscina magna circa cimiterium judeaorum" ["big pond at the Jewish cemetery"], says that "knowing the location of this pond, we believe that this cemetery was situated in the immediate vicinity of Old Synagogue from which it was separated by a purely defensive town wall". In the first half of the 16th century, the Jewish cemetery was established in Remuh in the Kazimierz district of Krakow in the broad Szerokiej, Miodowej, Jakuba and Ciemnej streets. On its site, you can enter the the Remuh synagogue internal square. Name of the synagogue and the cemetery is from the first letters of the title, first name and the names of Rabbi Moses Isserles. The Hebrew inscription above the entrance proclaims: "Old Cemetery, resting place of gaons, founded at kahal expense in 5311." The Jewish cemetery was purchased in 1533, however, the first burial occurred in 1551 when a plague epidemic filled the cemetery on ul. Szeroka with 220 people. The official opening of Remuh cemetery was 1552, the date of the oldest preserved tombstones. In the first half of the 17th century, Jews already owned all parcels included in the present cemetery to be used as needed. Eventually the area reached 4.5 hectares. The cemetery was officially closed in 1800 by order to Austrian authorities as part of a broad liquidation of cemeteries within the city for health reasons. New Jewish Cemetery on Miodowej Street, however, was repeatedly flooded by the Old Vistula, so even in the 19th century Remuh cemetery use continued. After its close, the cemetery began to deteriorate. About 1900, artists and scholars of Jewish culture became interest in the place. Conservation work began with some monuments restored, mainly those of distinguished persons; those that had disappeared were replaced by ones known in literature or from archival inscriptions. WWII brought devastation to the cemetery. The Nazis ruined most gravestones. Among those that survived was the monument on the grave of Rabbi Moses Isserles Remuh. Legend has it that the Nazi, who wanted to destroy the monument, fell senseless to the ground. Land in the cemetery was used for some time as a garbage dump, but the destruction did not mean the end of the cemetery. 1959 work on Remuh synagogue brought about archaeological research in the cemetery. Under a layer of earth and rubble were more than 700 tombstones. Less damaged pillars and sarcophagi were reset; and gravestone fragments not suitable for reconstruction were imbedded in the inside wall of the cemetery on ul. Szeroka. In 1988, gradually works began to with financial support from the Department of Protection of Monuments of the city of Krakow. The cemetery does not have the walkways between rows. In the southeast of the cemetery is a hill of about 4.5 meters, where according to one of the theories the poor were buried. Most matzevot are not in their place. Perhaps the most visited site is a few graves located at the rear of the synagogue and rail fence of Mojżesz Isserles Remuh and his family. Majer Balaban said that "at the tomb of Mojżesz Isserlesa (.....) pilgrimages on the anniversary of his death bring a thousand and tens of thousands of black-clad devout to the streets of Kazimierz near Krakow on Lag B'Omer". Mojżesz Isserles was the chief rabbi of Krakow, founder and rabbi of the Krakow Academy of Talmudic and great authority in the field of religious law. Built by the codification of Talmudic law enables the organization of Jewish life and is applicable to this day. The matzevot of rabbi Remuh in the middle of the fence is decorated with a crown, the traditional designation of Cohanim graves, and grapesvines, symbolizing wisdom and maturity. Recorded in the 18th century, the original matzevot is set in the back. The Hebrew inscription says: "This is the Light of the West, the greatest scholar in generations, our teacher, Mr. Moshe and our master, rabbi, Opoka Israel. Rachuby by 33 of the children of Israel. Part of Israel. Moshe was a shepherd of the flock of Israel. Perming divine justice and judge over Israel. Spread education among them. He had many disciples in Israel. From Moshe to Moshe, there was not one like Moshe in Israel. And, behold, Torat ha-Chatat and Torat ha-Ola, which provided the children of Israel, Moshe. 332 by Year Small rachuby". The first gravestone on the left commemorates Miriam, the sister of Remuh rabbi, who died on September 8, 1617 with epitaph: "Here is buried Miriam, the sister of Moshe and Aron. The death of Miriam, sister of Moshe and Aron, is close to ..., for her death, forgives sin. Her tomb will be the witness and commemorate the time when it was time the rest of the righteous. ... and on the day of resurrection, her soul will be bound in the crown of life! She went to her place of rest in the Sabbath eve, shortly before the arrival of the bride. She died 8 Elul 377 year rachuby". Between Moses and Miriam Isserles is a tomb of their father, Israel Isserles, son of Josef. His epitaph reads: "Here was buried you, Isserles master of Israel. He built a synagogue for God, Isserlesa called the Light of Krakow. And in Israel Law and Justice and the size of his merits will be praying for over the grave. He was called at the height of the dark years (1) 3 adar first. We ask for mercy, inside where no one resides or sleeps. May his soul be bound in the crown of life." The modest matzevot to the right Moses Isserles' tomb is for his brother, Icchak who died on September 6, 1584 year and inscribed the following words: "He was famous with his name. He was good for the calls of his people. Alms he did, no one was his rival. I learn that his people were in the way of food." Another matzevot commemorates Josef, brother of Moses and at the same time an outstanding Isserles Talmudist and his family: "A wise man said that in addition is buried a fat, serious woman, his wife, the rabbis, Mrs. Szprynca, daughter of dignitary, superior, respected leaders, Mr. Moshe ..., involved in charity and care of the sick. And the spouse was a crown. She died on 4 Tevet 338 years by a small rachuby. And she was buried next to her little grandson Gershon, son of Mr. and master Moshe, ... . Then there was buried scholar, our teacher Tanchum, son, scholar, our teacher Josef Kaca. He was all his life chief judge." Outside the fence, next to Miriam's tomb, is the matzevot of Isserles Gitel, daughter of Moshe Auerbach, who died on June 19, 1552, "was noble for the poor through her entire life. Went to the synagogue early in the morning and evening." The upper part of her gravestones is decorated with two stylized flowers. Next, a broken matzevot honors Gołdy, the daughter of Rabbi Shalom Lubelski Szachny Moses Isserles' wife, died at the age of twenty years during the plague in 1552.With the fence also are tombstones of Remuh rabbi's mother, Malkani, and her daughter, Drezel. In the resting place were also a number of rabbis, scholars, persons of merit from the local Jewish community. Eliezer Damask ben Josef - Dayan (rabbinic judge), in the first half of the 19th century and rabbi of Krakow, who died in 1847. Mordechaj Margaliot, rabbi of Krakow in 1591-1617, who died in 1617. Natan Spira - cabalist rabbi, chairman of the rabbinical court, author of "Megale amukot" died in 163. Eliezer Aszkenazy - rabbi in Cairo, Famagusta in Cyprus, Poznan, and perhaps also in Krakow, a doctor and scientist, who died in 1585. Gerszon Saul Yomtov Lipman Heller - rabbi in Vienna, Prague, Niemirowie, Vladimir and Krakow (since 1643), died in the 1654 with a jar symbol of the Levites. Mordechai Saba ben Yacob - cabalist, rector of the university and rabbinical Hebrew grammar expert, who passed away in 1576. Joel Sirkes - rabbi in Cracow in1618-1640, called BACH from first initials of his work - "Beit Chadasz", who died in 164. Samuel bar Meszulam - court physician Sigismund the Old and Sigismund Augustus, who died in 1552. Remuh Cemetery is also an important place in terms of sepulchral art. While 16th century tombstones are mostly simple and almost completely devoid of ornamentation, development of the art clearly reflects a move away from the early appearance of gravestones. Initial changes were small in differences on the vertical planes introducing plant motifs and Renaissance braids, and stylized flowers and fruits, dolphins tails and "cyma". The 18th century brought widespread festoon motives or wreaths of flowers, plants or fruit freely spread from two starting points. Changes in inscription were concave convex writing replaced old inscriptions. In addition to serving as important ornamentation symbols, over time in addition to religious requirements came the secular. Thus, one can see hands of a Cohan or a pitcher and bowl of Levites, Mogen David, animals or plants (mainly grapes), or even a scissors for the tomb of a tailor or an early stetchoscope for the tomb of a physician like Eliezer Aszkenazi. Symbolism had not yet focused on the deceased person with a goose feather on the grave of the writer, but symbols of death (broken tree, palm tree broken, broken candle) appeared. The cemetery can be visited from Monday to Friday and on Sundays between 09.00 - 16.00. On Saturday and Jewish holidays, the cemetery is closed. An admission fee is charged; for a ticket, go to the entrance to Synagogue Remuh. Archival photos. video: Synagoga i cmentarz Remuh. video: Jewish Krakow [May 2009]
KRAKOW I: US Commission No. POCE000785 Map
Podgorze (German: Josephstadt) is the former name of a Polish town now within the borders of Cracow. Cemetery location: ul. Szeroka 40, Krakow. Located in Krakow woj at 50°03'N 19°57'W, 300 km S of Warsaw. Present town population is over 100,000 with 100-1,000 Jews.
The earliest known Jewish commmunity in town was 1304. The cemetery was established in 1552 and closed in 1800. The Orthodox last burial was in 1552. 1938 Jewish population was 25% of 64,348. Landmark: monument in the Register of Monuments (A33 4/3/1974). The cemetery has been continually renovated since 1988. Funds for conservation come from the Civic Committee for Renovation of Cracow Monuments and from Jews from abroad. The isolated urban flat land has a Hebrew sign or plaque: a place of rest of Gaonim. Reached by crossing the courtyard in front of the Remah Synagogue, access is open with permission. A continuous wall and a locked gate surround the 4.5 ha cemetery. 500-5000 gravestones, 20-100 gravestones in original positions with less than 25% broken or toppled, date from 1552-19th century. The marble, limestone and sandstone, flat stones with carved relief decoration, double tombstones or sarcophagus types have Hebrew inscriptions. Some have traces of painting on their surfaces and metal fences around graves. There are special memorial monuments to pogrom victims but there are no known mass graves. The local Jewish community owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are residential. Frequently, organized Jewish group tours, private visitors, and local residents visit. The cemetery was vandalized during WW II. The Joint Distribution Committee and local authorities did restoration in 1959-1960: recreated tombstones, patched and cleaned, vegetation cleared and wall and gate fixed. The Jewish Congregation of Krakow pays regular caretaker. The cemetery forms a complex with the Remah Synagogue at the E border. Walls along the streets of Szerok, Miodowa, Jakuba and Ciemna surround both of them. Threats: Pollution is a very serious threat.
Teugeniusz Duda, ul. Wlodkowica 8/9, 31-452, Krakow, Tel. 12-63-93 completed survey on 10/17/1991. All the survey documentation is kept in the Museum of the History of Cracow, Division in the Old Synagogue, ul Szeroka 24, 37-053 Krakow.
KRAKOW II: US Commission No. POCE000786
This cemetery is located at Krakow, ul. Miodowa 55. Dr. Izabella Rejduch-Samkowa, Krakow, ul. Batorego 11/5. Tel. 633 71 25 and Henryk Halkowski, Krakow, ul. Stowachiego 11a. Tel. 633 15 64 may have more information. The still-active Orthodox and Progressive/Reform cemetery was established in 1800. The isolated urban flat land has no sign but has Jewish symbols on the gate or wall. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open with permission. A continuous masonry wall or fence with a locked gate surround the cemetery. Approximate size of cemetery was 22 ha before WWII and is 19 ha now. More than 5000 gravestones, most in their original location with less than 25% broken or toppled, date from the 1840s-20th century. 19 fragments are in the old Synagogue, now a museum. The marble, granite and sandstone, finely smoothed and inscribed or flat stones with carved relief decoration have Hebrew, Polish and German inscriptions. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces. There were special memorial monuments to Holocaust and pogrom victims. (There is a note that these no longer exist.) The local Jewish community owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are commercial, residential and a railroad on a roadbed and a filling station. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours, private visitors and local residents stop. The cemetery was vandalized during WW II. The Joint Distribution Committee and Jewish groups within the country recreated stones, patched and fixed fence in 1957-1958. The Jewish Congregation of Krakow pays regular caretaker. A pre-burial house has tahara table and wall inscriptions. Threats: Pollution is a very serious threat to the sandstone. Vegetation is moderate threat.
ul. Abrahama i ul. Jerozolimska Cemetery: "New" Jewish Cemetery in Krakow is located at ul. Miodowej and is one of the few still-active Jewish cemeteries in Poland. The cemetery was established in 1800 and until the outbreak of World War II occupied an area of 22 hectares. In the interwar period, the cemetery area was almost completely full. From 1932 years needing the new cemeteries, the founded ul Abrahama at ul Jerozolimskiej. In the Holocaust, these two cemeteries were in a Nazi labor camp called Krakow-Plaszow. Miodowa cemetery was severely damaged during World War II. The Germans used many matzevot for construction work. Some were used as paving slabs in Płaszów camp. Alexander Bieberstein in his book entitled The Holocaust of Jews in Krakow describes the state of the cemetery: "Monuments on the site were demolished, graves open, bones and objects of worship mixed among with the earth."
UPDATE: In addition to well-known cemeteries in Remuh Street, ul. Miodowa has two Jewish cemeteries. The first of these with the entry street at Jerozolimskiej 25 was established in the second half of the 19th century as the burial place of members of the Jewish religious community in Podgorze. The Jewish community in Krakow created a new cemetery in nearby Wola Duchackiej, the current ul. Abrahama. Both cemeteries divided ulica Jerozolimska. In a later period, either as Podgórze Duchacka were connected to Krakow. The cemetery was tragic. In WWII, a Germany extermination camp was built in Płaszów. Alexander Bieberstein in his book entitled "The Holocaust of Jews in Krakow" describes the devastation the cemetery: "Old Cemetery on submontane ulica Jerozolimskie had many valuable tombstones, black granite, Swedish, Czech popielatego, red trembowelskiego. Many of these graves were stone works of art. In the construction of the camp in Płaszów, all the tombstones were broken into smaller pieces for road paving. Slabs of black, the entry to the so-called Rotes Haus - that was the first residence of Amon Goethe in the Płaszów camp. The SS sold many of these gravestones to Krakow masons. Breaking the surviving remains of tombs and monuments, often extracting bones that surfaced in the construction of the camp Spychacze large area. They carefully preserved crowns and artificial teeth with precious metals. After the war, Matys Brunnegraber, a prisoner of the camp, said: "... cemetery wall, which lasted so long, because the wall was thick. We had to destroy gravestones and tombs for foundations [of the barracks]...columns on the graves at one-meter depth. ... with a mechanical excavator from land from which the bones of skeletons came. When facing the skull, Bagermeister Jews had to remove gold teeth and bridges. (Archives of the Jewish Historical Institute, "Victims of the Holocaust Relations," ref. 301/1732). The construction work in Płaszów also used some gravestones from the cemetery on ul. Miodowej. After the war, on the grounds the monument of Uzziah Thon was found in the building's hall, the building that housed the Chevra Kadisha, an old mortuary house used in the Płaszów camp as a stable and cowshed or swimming pool, destroying them. In building the house, employees tried to hide the Krakow kahał liturgical objects from synagogues including about 150 vintage Torahs. Unfortunately, these things fell into the German hands and were exported and partially destroyed. To this day, only a dozen foundations and survived and a tombstone belonging to Chaim Jacob Abrahamera, son of Isaac Meir, deceased in 1932. In 2003, the cemetery was set on the reconstruction of one of matzevot. Nearby you can find gravestones in the foundations of a house. The cemetery in recent years has been cleaned. Near the cemetery at ul. Jerozolimskiej is the "white house" where the SS tortured prisoners. A little further, at ul. Heltmana 22 is the house of a former commandant, Amon Goethe. On the hill find monuments honoring the victims of the camp in Płaszów. On one of them is placed this startling inscription: "Here in this place, skatowany, slaughter and spopielono in 1943-1945 were tens of thousands of Jews from Poland and Hungary. We do not know the names of those murdered, just one word - Jews. Here, at the Here, it was one of the Nazi crimes. Human speech does not know the words to describe this hideous crime. Its amazing bestiality, ruthlessness, cruelty. Zastąpmy --a single word -- Nazism. Memorial to the murdered, the last cry of despair that is the silence of the cemetery, tribute to Jewish survivors of the fascist pogrom." Photos. Video of the Plaszow Concentration Camp where Oscar Schindler saved many lives and featured in the Steven Speilberg film. [May 2009]
Alexander Bieberstein book The Holocaust of Jews in Krakow: The Jewish cemetery at ul. Miodowa was founded in 1800. Just at the gate on the right are the graves of Cohanim and on the left side, the modest mortuary hall where prayers were held before the funeral. In addition to the house was the cemetery caretaker's house. The rectangular cemetery whose shorter side with the wooden fence separated the eastern from the city slaughterhouse and a longer north side was separated from the street (today Daszyńskiego alley) by a wooden fence along the cemetery wall, with gateway numbered 55. After the occupation of Krakow by the Germans, a substantial section of cemetery wall was used to obtain a large quantity of stones. Jewish workers under the supervision of engineers Siódmaka and Stendiga did the dismantling. The wall thickness was 0.5 m and a height of 2.5 by a length of 81 meters, covered with slabs of concrete and fragments of glass, to prevent unauthorized entry into the cemetery. Taking Eng. Siódmak from ul. Siódmak at the corner of ul. Miodowa Starowiślna captured by the Germans and abducted to an unknown direction. No trace of him was found. After Eng. Siódmaku Siódmaku Ferdynand Szenker, Jewish Councilor, continued this work. A few years before the outbreak of WWII, the Jewish community recognized the serious lack of space at the cemetery on ul. Miodowa and purchased 40 hectares of land next to the cemetery in the Gminy Żydowskiej w Podgórzu in Wola Duchacki from the municipality. Site preparation and construction of the preburial house began. The Jewish community significantly reduced burying the dead in the cemetery on ul. Miodowej, allowing it only in cases of a past purchase. [May 2009]
UPDATE: Normal 0 In the fifties the twentieth century thanks to the support of Joint Distribution Committee cemetery has been renovated. Some boards gravestones transferred back to the cemetery and set in the wall or built. Today, on the 19 hectares are approximately seven thousand gravestones, the oldest of them from the 1840s. There are also a number of symbolic graves of victims of the Holocaust, erected by family in the post-war years. Most of the sandstone monuments have inscriptions in Hebrew, Polish and German. Entry to the cemetery is located at ul. Miodowej. On the left side of the house is the preburial building, designed at the end of the nineteenth century by Wladyslaw Kleinberg. The house has been put into service in June 1903. The building consists of a hall with a tahara (table) for ritual cleansing of the deceased for burial. Plaques were placed on the walls with the prayers. A monument dedicated to the memory of Holocaust victims was built in front of the preburial house. In its walls are broken tombstones and commemorations of Krakow Jews murdered during WW II. The inscription on the monument reads: "You are buried. The monument is dedicated to holy memory of national victims of the Nazi murderers. Let their souls be bound in the knot of life". From the path of the monument, next to the wall in which there are fragments matzevot. Within the curve of the wall, slightly to the left side is a large group of matzevot. The tombstones Kalonimus Kalman Epstein and his son Aron. Kalonimus Epstein played a very important role in the development of Chasidism in Kracow and Galicia. Continuing along the narrow lane, past the tomb of the rabbi of Krakow, Joseph Nachema Kornitzer and a bit later the matzevot of Orthodox Rabbi Simeon Schreiber, grandson of the famous Eiger, the creator of the lot "Machsike Hadaś", a member of parliament in Vienna and author of books on Jewish traditions. Almost at the end of an alleyway on the left is the 1879 obelisk of Maurycy Gottlieb. Still further are the tombs of the famous photographer Ignacy Krieger and medical and social worker, Yonaton Warszauer. In another part of the cemetery, after passing many matzevot, often almost entirely hidden in vegetation in the middle of the main avenues is a large black disc, the resting place of Uzziah Thon - Tempel synagogue charismatic rabbi, member of parliament, trustee of the Judaic Library in Krakow and Warsaw, the Institute for Judaic Studies, which continues traditions to this day as the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny. Dozen meters away, on the opposite side of the main avenue, is the tomb of George Gert and Josef Gartner (d. 1969), conductor, composer and founder of the Orchestra and Choir of Polish Radio in Kracow, artistic head of the Krakow Philharmonic. Gert composed the music for popular songs, including "Kwiaciarki Krakow" and "Songs of Nowa Huta. Closer are graves of Maciej (d. 1979) and Czeslaw (d. 1997) Jakubowicz -- governors of the Jewish Community in Krakow during WWII. The cemetery is open to the public every day except Saturdays and Jewish holidays between 09.00 - 17.00. No admission fee. Men should have head-covering. [photos] [May 2009]
KRAKOW (III): AS 140
Cemetery location: ul. Szeroka 40, Krakow. The families Ehrenpreis, Bauminger, Ahronson and Oberlander lived in the community. The Orthodox cemetery was established from 1887-1889 for Cracow Jewish Congregation about 2 km away with last known Jewish burial in 1942. The suburban flat land, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall, gate, or fence. Approximate size of cemetery before WWII was and is 4.18 ha. 1 to 20 stones exist, less than 25% broken. The oldest stones date to 1932. Inscriptions are Hebrew and Polish. Removed stones were incorporated into the road to the Plaszow concentration camp and in foundations of the barracks. No known mass grave. The local Jewish community owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are agricultural and residential. Private visitors visit rarely. The cemetery was vandalized during WW II. The cemetery is not maintained. There are no structures. Threats: Vandalism and security are serious threats. Malgorzta Radolowicz, 37 Florianska St. Apt 3, Krakow completed survey on 8/15/1995. Documentation: Maps: "Najnowszy plan stol. Krol. Miasta Krakowa wykonany przez bud. Miejsk. odd. B. w Krakowie w 1916", ruler 1:10,000; "Plan der Stadt Krakau", (1939-1940), ruler 1:15,00 Printed Survey: K.Grodziska, Cmentarze Podgorza, Krakow 1992; J.Stendig, "Dewastacja cmentarzy, boznic I zabytkow zydowskich Krakowa podczas okupacji hitlerowskiej", (in) W 3-cia rocnice zaglady Ghetta w Krakowie, Krakow 1946.
Malgorzata Radolowicz visited the site and interviewed Mr. Tadeusz Jakubowicz.
NOTE: correction by Pawel Kubisztal [October 2000]. Podgorze is the former name of a town established by Austrians, now within the borders of Krakow. Located in region Malopolskie at 19°57W 50°03N, 300 km from Warsaw. Cemetery location: ul. Jerozolimska 25, Krakow.
UPDATE: in former city of Podgorze established by Austrians, which was incorporated in Krakow early in 20th century. It was never officially called Josefstadt; and population of 100.000 people is not correct. I will have photographic exhibition called "Windows of Kazimierz, former Jewish quarter" in 2001 at Jewish Cultural Centre in Krakow. Source: Pawel Kubisztal
. [October 2000]
KRAKOW IV: AS 141 Map
Podgorze (German: Josephstadt) is the former name of a Polish town now within the borders of Cracow. Located in region Krakowskie Matopolska Zachodnia at 50°03'N 19°57'W, 300 km from Warsaw. Cemetery location: ul. Szeroka 40, Krakow. Present town population is over 100,000 with 100-1,000 Jews.
Date of the earliest Jewish community is 1784 at city of Podgorze/Josphstadt. There was a quick rise of Jewish presence after 1867. Until 1884, the Podgorze/Josephstadt Jewish community used the Krakow cemetery at Miodowa St and from 1887-1889, the cemetery in Wieliczka. The cemetery was destroyed in 1942 when the road the concentration camp at Plaszow was built across the site. 45,200 Jews were counted in the census of 1921. The families Ehrenpreis, Bauminger, Ahronson and Oberlander lived in the community. The cemetery was established from 1887-1889 with last known Orthodox Jewish burial in 1942. From 1941-1942, Jews from the Cracow ghetto were buried here. The suburban flat land, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall, gate, or fence. Approximate pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 1.7 ha. There are no visible stones. The stones were incorporated into the road to the Plaszow concentration camp and as foundations for the barracks. Vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem, disturbing graves. There are no known mass graves. The cemetery contains memorial monuments to mass executions of Poles in 1939. The local Jewish community ownsproperty used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are agricultural and residential. Private visitors visit rarely. The cemetery was vandalized during WW II. The cemetery is not maintained. There are no structures. Threats: Vandalism and security are serious threats, vegetation and incompatible development moderate threats.
UPDATE: There are two cemeteries betweel ul. Abrahama and Jerozolimska founded in 1932. A concentration camp was built on the site. Source: Miram Weiner
UPDATE: photo. http://www.polishjews.org/photos/krakow.htm and http://www.polishjews.org/synag/krakow2.htm and http://www.polishjews.org/synag/krakow.htm have synagogue photo, sketch, and link to 1910 map. [August 2005]
UPDATE: Cemetery photos [May 2006]
|Last Updated on Wednesday, 10 June 2009 18:55|