Alternate names: Koszalin [Pol], Köslin [Ger], Scurgum [Lat], Koeslin, Kezlin, Kòszalëno, Cussalin [Latin]. 54°12' N, 16°11' E, Largest city of Middle Pomerania, in NW Poland. 100 miles W of Gdańsk (Danzig). 1900 Jewish population: 140 (in 1933). Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), IV, p. 480: "Koszalin". Koszalin located 15 km S of the Baltic Sea coast is a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was a capital of Koszalin Voivodeship (1950-1998). During WWII, Köslin was the site of the first school for the rocket troops created by Walter Dornberger, the Wehrmacht's head of the V-2 design and development program. [June 2009]
OLD CEMETERY: Built in the middle of the 18th century at the river Dzierżęcinką and the junction of ul. Orlej and ul. Rzecznej, this was a small cemetery of only about four ares [NOTE: not acres]. [May 2009]
NEW CEMETERY: In the early 20th century, Koszaliń Jews founded a new cemetery at the current ul. Raclawicka. [May 2009]
The Nazis destroyed both in 1938. Henryk Romanik in his book entitled The Jews in Koszalin wrote "Germany defiled the gravestones, some cast into the river, and the preburial house at the new cemetery demolished and burned. The only living thing preserved was the Christian cemetery watchman. They banned burials so local Jewish funerals were in Slupsk." From the description of the cemetery made in May 1947 by Engineer Gildemmana of the Central Jewish Historical Commission, even following WWII gravestones remained in the new cemetery. Gildemman wrote: "The Jewish cemetery in Koszalin is at the heart of the city, probably once fenced ... In the western part of the cemetery was a tahara (pre-burial) house, now completely ruined. All the monuments are fallen, some of these monuments probably removed... The oldest monuments come from 1900, granite polished with Yiddish and German inscription. According to testimony the Germans completely destroyed the old cemetery, no trace left." That land became a new teaching building of the University of Koszalin. Both cemeteries gradually slipped into oblivion. Restoration of the cemetery called for by the municipality and Zdzisław Grynkiewicz, Jerzy Pacholski came only after the publication of his Voice of Pomerania article "Fie Before the Visitor." Editor Piotr Polechoński wrote "Leslie Brent, a native of Koszalinand English professor [with] Nobel Prize winner Peter Medawar visited his city of birth in July. ... This threatens the entire city with a huge shame! Most likely, the guest wanted to see one of two Jewish cemeteries, which existed before the war in Koszalin. One of them was present in the river road, the second on Orlej Street (on both). In the second cemetery is buried David Baruch, grandfather of Leslie Baruch Brent from all over the cemetery the only tombstone that survived to our times and is in Koszalińskim Museum. However, today's view of the place is a nightmare. Tons of mud, ... garbage, lack of even the smallest sign that it is once held people; and their remains are still here." Efforts of the city and in agreement with the old Jewish cemetery has been cleaned. A stone memorial was built next to the only preserved matzevot. On July 14, 2005, a ceremony marked the cemetery restoration. Leslie Baruch Brent from London and representatives of local authorities led by the mayor Miroslaw Mikietyńskim, representatives of Jewish communities and organizations in Poland, Bishop Pawel Cieslik, and researcher of the history of the Koszalin Jews, Fr. Henryk Romanik, were in attendance. Researchers at the University of Koszalin assisted. On May 24, 2006 a new monument was unveiled at the site of Jewish cemetery in ul. Raclawicka with a bas-relief of a broken tree, a universal Jewish sepulchral art symbol of ended life with the words in Polish and Hebrew: "Koszaliń Jewish memorial to those buried in the new cemetery (1900 - 1938). Let their souls be bound up in eternal life." Years after the anniversary of Kristallnacht, residents marched through the streets of the city of Koszalin in memory of the their lost Jewish neighbors to the Jewish cemeteries and synagogues. Many tombstones still remain in the city, part of construction of buildings or fences. Matzevot were used in the construction of low walls at Victory Square [Placu Zwycięstwa] and ul. Kolejowej. Map photos. [May 2009]
Alternate name: Koslin. Koszalin is in region Koszalin at 54°11 N 16°11 E. Cemetery: at ul. Orla. Present population is 25,000-100,000 with no Jews.
Henryk Grecki, 70-534 Szczecin, Soltyzia 3/73, tel. 377-41 completed survey August 30, 1991 using a documentation form. The site was not visited. There were no interviews.
KOSZALIN II: US Commission No. POCE000335
|Last Updated on Wednesday, 10 June 2009 12:37|