Alternate names: Kołobrzeg [Pol], Kolberg [Ger], Cholbergensis [Lat]. 54°11' N, 15°35' E, in Middle Pomerania, on the Baltic coast of NW Poland, 125 miles W of Gdańsk (Danzig), 67 miles NE of Szczecin (Stettin). Jewish population: 40 in 1816; 440 in 1895; about 600 in 1897; and 197 in 1933. Map. This city in Middle Pomerania in NW Poland with some 50,000 inhabitants in 2000 located on the Parsęta River on the south coast of the Baltic Sea in the middle of the section divided by the Oder and Vistula Rivers has been the capital of Kołobrzeg County in West Pomeranian Voivodship since 1999 and previously was in Koszalin Voivodship (1950-1998). In 1944 (WWII), the city was designated a "stronghold" called Festung Kolberg. The 1807 siege was used by Joseph Goebbels for the last Nazi epic propaganda film, Kolberg to inspire the Germans with its depiction of the heroic Prussian defence during the Napoleonic Wars with tremendous resources devoted to filming, even diverting tens of thousands of troops from the front lines as extras in battle scenes. The film was released in the final few weeks of Nazi Germany's existence when most of Germany's cinemas were destroyed. After WWII, the devastated city as with all of Pomerania east of the Oder-Neisse line became Polish. The city was resettled with Poles and many of the historic buildings eventually restored. [June 2009]
Jewish settlement in Kołobrzeg is first documented in medieval times, 1261. After the Expulsion of 1492/93, some Jews who converted to Christianity, remained here. At the end of 15th century, Kołobrzeg Jews, like other Jews of Pomerania, were forced to leave the city; however, Jewish wool merchants could be found in Kołobrzeg in the 17th century. In 1702 Hirschel Salomon and Aaron Moses were refused permission to settle after protests by Christian merchants. In 1785-88, three "schutzjuden" (protected Jews) traded amber. Redevelopment of Jewish settlement began at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1812, Jews were legally allowed residence and the Jewish cemetery established. In 1845, they built a synagogue. Many local Jews were employed in handling patients coming to the city for the spa. WWI and the depressed economic situation encouraged immigration. In 1933, when Hitler came to power, the Jewish population of Kołobrzeg was only about 200. Anti-Semitic repression by the Nazis led to more Jews fleeing. During Kristallnacht, with synagogues destroyed and Jewish homes vandalized, many Jews suffered. Many local Jews were employed in treating patients coming to the city spas. A convalescent home was dedicated in 1899 by Salomon Goldschmidt (rabbi until 1925). A school, cemetery, synagogue, and teacher who was also cantor were maintained until WWII.Most who remained in the city were deported on February 11-12, 1940 to ghettos in Lublin, where later to death camps. old postcards. [June 2009]
OLD CEMETERY: The older one was established in 1812 at the crossing of ul. Zdrojowej i ul. Zdrojowa and ul. Mickiewicza. Well-known balneologist, Herman E. Hirschfeld, was buried there. [May 2009]
NEW CEMETERY: Founded in the early 20thcentury at current ul. Koszalińskiej, under the PRL, the "new" cemetery site became a gas transmission station. In 2000, the site was commemorated as the burial place Kołobrz Jews. A small lapidarium was constructed with several gravestones found on which is set on a Mogen David. In 2000, this place of burial Kołobrzeg Jews received attention and recognition. The matzevot monument inscription reads: "To the memory of Jewish members of Kolobrzeg, deported in 1940 and murdered by the Nazis on 28 October 1942 in the Belzec extermination camp. The Jewish community living in Kolobrzeg in 1812-1940 made a significant contribution to the development of the city as a seaside resort. The People of Kolobrzeg. At this point in 1812-1938, there was a Jewish cemetery." photos and photos. Under Soviet rule, a gas transmission station was built on the "new" cemetery. Several remaining sandstone slab gravestones with Hebrew inscriptions were found, one with a Star of David and subtle ornamentation pf Wici plants, and on one, the symbol of Divine Providence, the sign clearly foreign to Judaism, that appear on Jewish matzevot in the areas where Jews came into contact with Evangelicals. Nazis on 28 October 1942 in Belzec extermination camp. The Jewish community living in Kolobrzeg in 1812-1940 made a significant contribution to the development of the city as a seaside resort. The People of Kolobrzeg. At this point was a Jewish cemetery in 1812-1938." Photos. [June 2009]
Both cemeteries were destroyed during Nazi occupation. Gravestones were taken for construction. [May 2009]
US Commission No. POCE000333
Alternate name: Kolberg in German. Kolobrzeg is located in Koszalinskie (Koszalin provnce) at 54°11' 15°34', 30 km from Koszalin. Cemetery location: ul. Koszalinska. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with no Jews.
The Progressive/Reform Jewish cemetery was established in the 18th century. The isolated suburban flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall or gate. The size of the cemetery before WWII and now is 0.37 hectares. No tombstones, structures, or mass graves. Municipality owns property used as a Jewish cemetery and industrial/ commercial use. Local residents visit rarely. The cemetery was vandalized prior to WWII. No maintenance. Incompatible nearby development is a moderate threat.
Henryk Grecki, 70-534 Szczecin, Soltysia 3/13, tel. 377-41 completed survey 30 Aug 1991 with no visit or interviews.
|Last Updated on Saturday, 06 June 2009 11:28|