CEMETERY: Friedrich Wilhelm's 1812 emancipation edict granted full citizenship and religious freedom in Prussia in the 19th century. In medieval times, Jews had land for burials, but after their exile in 1492, the site at Czech Gate [Bramą Czeską] at the intersection of ulic Czeskiej and Armii Krajowej) and was certainly used prior to 1490. In the 1820s, the Kłodzka Jews, had a problem because by 1814, the city demanded they indicate the place for a new cemetery. Aug. 25 of that year, when Solomon Schmeier Landsberger arrived in the town from Biała Prudnicki, the site remained unresolved. Wealthy family private cemeteries were begun. The first was Seelig Swidnica from Caro, who in July 1814 paid 21 talarów to Major von Braun for 140 garden plots at the No. 2 Zieloną Bramą (the present district Jagiełły Square). The area earmarked for the Pochówki Family was unsuitable burying. An official act of 3 May 1815 did not cover the local Jewish community. Consequently, Polk Moritz boutght a site from Ziębice Wancke for 90 talarów. The municipal cemetery also had to be private but was not closed to Jews. They finally found a site outside the city at today's Jurandów no. 93. The municipality accepted the creation of one cemetery for all Jews. Seelig Caro, Salomon Forell from Białej Prudnickiej, Wolf Sittenfeld from Raciborza, Jakob Frommem from Urazu, Fabian Silberstein from Miejsca and Moritz Polke bought land for 100 German talarów in front of the School Gate (Schultore) for the cemetery instead of the previously leased square near Theresa Gates (Theresientor) with the Neisse river nearby in 1825. The first burial took place in 1833. The cemetery was enlarged twice, 1888 and 1927, reaching a final area of 0.2759 hectares at ulicy Bohaterów Getta 18 in the vicinity of primary schools and the police headquarters. Originally, the cemetery entrance was located at the eastern part near administrative building and gravedigger home. Only traces of that wall at the gate remain. Still visible in pictures taken in 1988, inventories compiled by the cemetery Myślińskiego lodazko are available in the facility at the southern wall of the school. The cemetery has two components: an older section with German tombstones from the 19th and 20th centuries (at bottom east part) and Polish war section combined with the staircase at the western wall. Gravesones face east (towards Jerusalem) with epitaphs in Hebrew, German, and German and Hebrew (on the same side or one side German and the other Hebrew). At least 215 graves exist although possibly 375 are there. The oldest part with the German gravestones from 1845 and 30 matzevot from the 20th century are several types of matzevot of different materials and design either vertical or horizontal sandstone, rectangular slabs with a semicircular top up to 2 m. Sandstone erosion makes inscriptions at least partially illegible. Most are also damaged and broken and require preseration. Decoration include a Cohanim priestly blessing and broken trees. Marble sarcophagi (Brieger Family, Samuel Caro) are much better preserved. Horizontal slabs of monuments are mostly not readable and have a greater physical damage. Side ornamentation is mainly plants. Sarcophagi were dismantled with the broken inscription panels reconstructed to the extent possible. Another type is inclined slightly on vertical supports or standing on rectangular sandstone slabs often with closed archs and various kinds made of marble. Most of these were broken into multiple pieces (6 to over 20) and were reconstructed if possible with epoxy adhesive. Part of the matzevot remain incomplete, since not all elements were found. Stone in fairly good condition also have epitaphs indelible or legible, typical early 20th-century monuments like an obelisk positioned on a pedestal constructed primarily of costly stone like marble, granite and [sjenitu], reaching 2.5 m. The NE corner has the mass grave of Jews murdered in Kłodzko in WWII. Jews, who are members of the Kongregacji Wyznania Mojżeszowego, sponsored a granite table reconstructed with 2 pieces, incomplete in the middle. In two nearby Polish Jews war graves are complete tombstones. In the eastern aisle wall section is the Zimmermann family tomb with sides of red sandstone and granite slabs resembling a triangle. Unfortunately, this is incomplete despite reconstruction. One of the largest, granite panels (height of approximately 2 m) of the Dzialoszynski family have column and base of around 4 m. and preserved tombstones of several children with a small oval plate or obelisks of 60 cm. The older gravestones in the German section, ie, north of the main alleys, are about 49% destroyed. The main building was about 90% damaged. In this area are also two others located at the stairs. A tree growing in them disrupts some graves. The second part of the cemetery, located on the south side of the main alley from the end of the 19th to the late 1930s, looks a bit different. A large number of preserved original matzevot are visible from the entry, 62%. Predominantly expensive stone, often polished stones in a form no longer traditional rectangle with arched end, but more in the style of German cemetery patterns, obelisks set on a sandstone base almost identical to those in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin. Their height often exceeds 2 m. Columns placed on bases exceed 2 m. The broken column symbolizes an age. Loss of gravestones here is small; epitaphs are readable. Some sandstone standing rectangles with inscription plates are embedded in granite, sometimes of marble. The state of the sandstone with a few exceptions, is quite good; broken gravestones have been reconstructed and mounted on the back. These stone monuments are kept in extremely good condition, but with frequent losses. Most of the stone fence remains, showing clearly where there are no gravestones. There are also richly decorated metalwork fences running about 40 meters, which has been partially renewed. Also in this area is the bias arrangement of graves. Symbolism appears in the matzevot but is not as conspicuous as the older section. Before renewal, the area was 95% damaged meaning that approximately one hundred matzevot became just a few. However the number surviving are tangible proof of Kłodzkich prosperity and assimilation of Jews in German society. The most recent, post-war Polish as part of the cemetery is located on the west wall and was included in the cemetery after 1927. To date, there are cellars where the building once existed. They are accessible since entry and exit are not completely blocked. Most of the post-war monuments were made of artificial stone (lastryka) placed during the progressive devastation of the cemetery. Traditional Jewish symbols are lacking while the symbolism is visibly secular (palm branches on graves of communist activists), Mogen David. Before the start of renovation of the cemetery this area of approximately 90% damaged. The City of Kłodzko managed to supply help with heavy equipment for around 80 tons of rubbish, which clogged the cemetery wall, as well as on the graves. That part of the cemetery retained around 70% of the tombstones. The cemetery has not been used since the mid-1970s, although in 1971 it was. The Bureau of the National Council of the District in Kłodzko Wyznania to the Congregation of Moses in Wroclaw, said, "Bearing in mind the condition of the city and good aesthetic cemetery quality requested by the closure and decommissioning the existing cemetery / inability to continue its maintenance and extension / and move it and the creation of separate headquarters for the Jewish cemetery in complex rozbudowywanego and zagospodarowywanego municipal cemetery with the religion of Moses with all regulatory requirements and wishes of stakeholders". To clarify, the decision to decommission the cemetery was primarily based on construction plans for building a branch of the Technical University of Wroclaw. However, that was in accordance with the then existing law on cemeteries; a cemetery only can be abolished when thirty years have elapsed since the last burial in accordance with the law until 2004. On April 6, 1972, the reply of the Jews are categorical opposition to liquidation and transfer of a cemetery on religious grounds. They prevailed for whatever reason. Based on documents preserved archival difficult to identify what influenced the change in the decision of local authorities and administrative behavior of the cemetery. Some years later in its immediate vicinity the University building was built. In the course of construction work, the cemetery addition was not addressed at the same time. Mortuary house built of red brick was a fairly good state of repair. In the mid-1970s Kłodzku's few remaining Jews were buried in Jewish cemeteries in Wroclaw and Walbrzych and others in the municipal cemeteries. Garbage collected in the cemetery as some Jews moved family graves elsewhere. Volunteer trees sprouted. A hooligans' meeting place ensued. Lack of interest from the local authority and social oblivion indicated that it would not regain its proper place in the history of the city. In 2000, ownership of the a Jewish cemetery in Kłodzku passed to the Jewish Community in Wroclaw, but it has not changed the status. Not until 2005 when then chairman of the board of Jewish Wroclaw Ignacy Einhorn improved circumstances. At his initiative, a group associated with people of good will planned to renovate the cemetery. Warsaw Action Foundation is committed to the Preservation of Jewish Heritage and Antyschematy Antoni Gałuza Director of nearby cemetery 6, and primary schools. The entire project overseer is Wałbrzyska Regional Delegation Office for Monument in Wroclaw. In July 2005, at the direction of George Fornalika, Szkolno teacher, Wychowawczego Center in Borzęciczkach for one week had youth worked with the schools and gymnasiums Sulejówka of Warsaw, and Koźmin Borzęciczek in the program Antyschematy. This group put in yeomen's work clearing the area of overgrowing vegetation. In September 2005, in cooperation with the Foundation for Cross European Cemetery Agreement, volunteers from the international project "Volunteer Service Zabytkom began to restore it. The earlier work emptied 80 tons of waste from parts of the Polish cemetery. Then, came the testing and documentation for matzevot conservation. Prior to winter, a special lift for raising matzevot was designed and purchased; some weighted 500 kg. Approximately 30 pieces made it to the school building in winter where they are cleaned and restored with the use of specialized adhesive for the stonework. Beginning in 2006 work was intensively preparing documentation related to the applying for entry in the register of historic monuments. Success followed for that endeavor in recognition of the last trace of a Jewish cemetery in Kłodzko Valley, recognizing the long presence of Jews in the area of Silesia. The work continues with dedicated persons. photos. [May 2009]
Alternate names: Glatz (German), K³odzko (Polish), Klodsko, and Kladsko. Klodzko is located in Walbrzyskie (Walbrzych) at 50°26 16°39, 100 km S of Wroclaw (former Breslau). Present total town population 35,000-40,000 with probably no Jews.
The isolated urban flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, a broken masonry wall and no gate surround. Vegetation is a constant problem damaging stones. Water drainage is a seasonal problem. The 19th century marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, and slate finely smoothed and stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, or obelisks, some with metal fences around graves and other metal elements, have German and Hebrew inscriptions. No known mass graves. The current owner of the site is unknown, possibly the municipality. The site is used for waste dumping. Properties adjacent are residential, a primary school, and a prison. The site is visited rarely. The cemetery was vandalized frequently in the last ten years. No care. Within the limits of the cemetery is some building covered with soil, now a small hill. Security, weather erosion, pollution, vegetation, and vandalism are very serious threats.
Adam Wojtkiewicz, is working on completing more information for the survey.
UPDATE: The cemetery location is Elementary School no. 6, Bohaterow Getta 6 St., 57-300 Klodzko. 5026 1639, 225.6 miles WSW of Warsaw and about 100 km S of Wroclaw (former Breslau). Alternate/former names are German: GLATZ and Czech: KLACKO. Province is Lower Silesia voivodship (before 1999 was Walbrzych voivodship.) Present town population is about 35000-40000 with probably no Jews.
|Last Updated on Monday, 24 October 2011 21:21|