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KEDZIERZYN-KOZLE: Opolskie PDF Print E-mail

Coat of arms of Kędzierzyn-KoźleAlternate names: Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Heydebreck, Kandrzin, Kandrzin Pogorzelletz, Kędzierzyn, 50°21' N 18°12' E , 178.4 miles SW of Warszawa. The area was part of the the territorial changes of Poland after World War II and now in powiat Kędzierzyńsko-Kozielski, a unit of territorial administration and local government in Opole Voivodeship, SW Poland. and in 1975,  was formed by combining the municipalities of Kędzierzyn, Koźle, Sławięcice, and Kłodnica (German: Koldnitz): The area was the location of an I.G. Farben plant that, as well as the I.G. Farben Oppau plant, that first manufactured synthetic glycerine. "I.G. Heydebreck" also synthesized gas and higher alcohols from coke. The facilities were bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II first in June 1944. At the junction of the Kłodnica and the Odra, 29 Ifl. S.E. of Opole by rail with a lively trade by river. The first mention of Kozle appears in 1112-1116.  The village was the location of an I.G. Farben plant that, as well as the I.G. Farben Oppau plant, were the first to manufacture synthetic glycerine. "I.G. Heydebreck" also synthesized gas and higher alcohols from coke. The facilities were bombed during the Oil Campaign of WWII first in June 1944. The location of two camps of several Arbeitslager Blechhammer labor and POW camps in the area (the crematorium was also in Sławięcice), in 1954, Blachownia and Lenartowice merged to form the Blachowni Śląskiej district in Sławięcice. Video. Map [June 2009]

The unclear beginnings of Jewish settlement in Kedzierzyn-Kozle come from at least 1713 with the imperial edict issued (city ruled by the Habsburgs) allowed Jews to settle in Silesia except in cities such as Prudnik, Głubczyce, Racibórz, Kozle, Opole and Nysa. In 1750, the Jewish presence in the city consisted of two Jewish merchants, Baruchow and Marcus Solomon, was recorded. Kedzierzyn-Kozle, located near the salt route, developed slowly next to the town of Jewish merchants and their families. In June 1796, the Jewish community purchased a building that was adapted for a prayer house from heirs of Baruch Steinfeidschena when leaders were Meyer Walentin Friedlander, Izaak Itzinger, and Simon Jakub Kuaffmann. These premises soon proved insufficient. At the end of the 18th century, the town with 94 Jews  decided to buy a new house at Dwupiętrową Street on 21 March 1825 from the pharmacist Schliwy. This building served religious purposes for over 50 years. In September 1877, the Jewish community decided to build a new synagogue with donations from Kozielskich Jews. They bought a square near the gate of Raciborska Market. The new synagogue was dedicated September 10, 1886, in ceremonies attended by, among others, Kozle administrators and the rabbi from Bytom, Ferdynand Rosenthal. This synagogue has survived to 1938 riots during "Crystal Night". On the day of the outbreak of WW II, Kedzierzyn-Kozle had about 80 Jews led by a merchant, Lippmann. Most were deported, murdered, or put in camps. In 1940, in the city and its environs, Germany had a dozen labor camps. Prisoners were forced to work in the construction of chemical plants belonging to German IG Farben, which produced a synthetic petrol. One of these camps was for Jewish forced labor, on average 3-4,000 people from different countries of Europe (male and female camps). April 1, 1944, the camp was transformed into a branch of KL Auschwitz-Birkenau and by the name Arbeitslager Blechhammer. The march killed at least 248 people. On January 21, 1945, Germany began eliminating the camp near the railway station in Sławięcicach. To date, a few guard towers, crematorium, and assembly square remains. In 1968, a monument was dedicated to the memory of the victims of this branch of KL Auschwitz-Birkenau. In 2004, Joseph Kornweitz presented the City in Kedzierzyn-Kozle with the first part of a history of the Kozielskich Jews, primarily genealogical information about different families: the date of birth, death, marriage, change in marital status. [May 2009]

CEMETERY: The 0.28 hectare Kedzierzyn-Kozle Jewish cemetery was founded in 1814 in Dębowa village and served Reńska. Located near Renska Wies on the road to Debowa near the Debowa lake, the cemetery is abandoned. The former synagogue (now a hospital) was destroyed during Krystallnacht. The cemetery was damaged by the Germans during WWII but still existed at surrender. The site must have had many matzevot since on March 10, 1948, the Jewish Council for the voivodeship gave the cemetery in Kozle to the Regional Committee. They removed it and the gravestones with German inscriptions. In 1994, a few visible matzevot with German-Hebrew inscriptions remained. Currently, only fragments of matzevot, several gravestones, and bases with two unreadable upper parts of matzevot are visible. Finding the cemetery is difficult. Someone from the neighborhood might help because the cemetery is in the forest video of cemetery [May 2009]

CEMETERY: also used cemetery at BIALA in 1st half of 19th century. Kędzierzyn Koźle, ul. Raciborska. The Jewish cemetery in Kedzierzyn-Kozle was established in 1814 in the area of nearby village Debowa. Only 5 matzevot are visible. The cemetery is 0.3 ha. [June 2009]

UPDATE: The cemetery is located off a country road. An inconspicuous sign indicates it as the Jewish cemetery. The cemetery itself is completely overgrown, there are NO tombstones extant whatsoever! The only structures remaining are the stone bases. There is no indication of digging or other vandalization however. It appears that the tombstones were systematically removed, because no fragments are found. Gottfried Brieger visited in September, 2004. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [January 2005]

US Commission No. POCE000524  

Located in region, Opolskie region. The town is located at 50°20' 18°08' and is 87 km from Opole. Cemetery location: wies Debowa. Present town population is 25,000-100,000 with no Jews.

  • Town: Urzad Gminy, Renska Wies ul. Panlowicka 1 Tel. 22210.
  • Regional: Wojewodzki Konserwator Zabytkon, mgl. J. Prusiewicz, 45-082 Opole, ul. Piastonska 19.

The first mention of Jews was 1812. 1938 Jewish population was 80. The Progressive/Reform cemetery was established in 1814. The isolated rural flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall, gate, or fence. Approximate size of cemetery was.28 ha. 1-20 stones, some in original location with less that 25% broken, date frp, the 19th century. The granite, limestone and sandstone finely smoothed, inscribed, flat stones have carved relief decoration and Hebrew and German inscriptions. There are no known mass graves. Municipality owns property used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are agricultural. Rarely, private visitors stop. The cemetery was vandalized occasionally. The cemetery is not maintained. There are no structures. Vandalism is a serious threat. Vegetation is a moderate threat. Security, weather erosion and pollution are slight threats. The cemetery is destroyed; almost all stones are broken.

Marcin Wodzinski, ul. Jednosci Narodonej 187/13 Wroclaw, Tel. 216908 visited on 4/5/1992 and completed survey on 4/16/1992. No interviews were conducted.

Last Updated on Friday, 20 November 2009 21:52
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