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JABLONKA KOSCIELNA: Podlaski PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Jabłonka [Pol], Yablonka [Yid, Rus], Jabłonka Kościelna, Russian: Яблонка-Косцельна. יאבלונקה קושצ'יילנה-Hebrew. 52°57' N, 22°22' E, 20 miles SE of Łomża, between Zambrów and Wysokie Mazowieckie. 1900 Jewish population: 638. Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), III, p. 342: "Jabłonka" #9. Jabłonka Kościelna is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wysokie Mazowieckie within Wysokie Mazowieckie County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in NE Poland  11 km (7 mi) W of Wysokie Mazowieckie and 57 km (35 mi) W of the regional capital Białystok. The village has a population of 160. We Remember Jewish Jablonka! [May 2009]

Jabłonka Kościelna is a village situated in Podlaskie voivodship and from 1975-1998 in province łomżyńskiego. From 1795 onwards, the village was in Prussian Zaborze; since 1807 in the Duchy of Warsaw; since 1815 in the Kingdom of Poland; and since 1837 within woj. Augustowski. In 1867,  Jabłonka was in łomżyński. In the interwar period, it was in woj. Białostocki midway between Zambrowa and Wysoki Mazowiecki. The first references to the original name of the village (Jabłonka Świerszczewo) was in the first quarter of the 15th century when it was inhabited by the Jabłońsk family. In the early18th century, the village was held by the wealthy Śląskich family and then the Skiwskis. At the end of the 18th century, the village became a town with an overwhelming Jewish population. Settlement of Jews dates from the second half of 17th century.  In 1700,  the Jewish population was 1,739 with the privilege of markets and two fairs. 1764/1765 Jewish population was 97 the town and surroundings. The kahał organized at the end of the 18th century according to church sources. Jewish population: 1808- (only) 196 Jews; 1827-61 houses and 357 inhabitants; 1882-48 houses and 595 residents, mostly Jews; 1830-358 Jews (including 317 in Jabłonce); 1860-650 more Jews in Jabłonce. WWI caused a decline in Jewish population. In 1911, of 534 residents 439 were Jews (82.2%). 1921 census was 248 with 157 Jews (63.3%). Religion played a great role in the municipality and its related institutions. The wooden synagogue was built in the mid-19th century. Parallel to the synagogue was a wooden mikvah. In 1858, the cemetery was fenced. A home and hospital for Jewish children existed. In the 1980-90s, four cheders functioned. In 1913, a wooden synagogue and beit midrash, mikvah, and a cemetery existed. During WWI, the wooden synagogue burned down and was never rebuilt. On September 10, 1939, German troops occupied the town, but before they arrived, Germans shot four Jews and one was forced into a well on the road between Wysokiem Mazowieckiem and Zambrowa. Jabłonka was occupied by the Soviets at the end of September 1939. In August 1941, the Jewish ghetto was set up in Wysokiem Mazowiecki for Jews of the city and surrounding villages, about five thousand people. Slave labor included construction and road repair, craft workshops, and cleaning in the city. On November 2, 1942, the ghetto was liquidated with about 3,700 people transported to the labor camp in Zambrowie. In this city from August 1941 to January 1943 was the ghetto and the work camps for prisoners of war and forced laborers. Prisoners of the camp daily were subjected to walking barefoot, naked, in whatever weather, including children, the sick and old. After the liquidation of the ghetto in January 1943, its inhabitants were sent to Treblinka. photos. [May 2009]

OLD CEMETERY: "Kever Israel." Established in the second half of the 18th century, this was the only Jewish cemetery in the area that also served Jews from Zambrowa and Wysokiego Mazowieckiego. Located on a small hill, about 200-300 meters from the path Wysokie Mazowieckie-Zambrów and 40 meters from the road leading to Jabłonki Kościelnej. In 1858, the cemetery was filled. Today, the cemetery is arable land. [May 2009]

NEW CEMETERY: On Strażackiej Street near the synagogue, there is no trace. [May 2009]

Last Updated on Thursday, 28 May 2009 00:24
 
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