Alternate names: Częstochowa [Pol], Chenstochov [Yid], Tschenstochau [Ger], Čenstochová [Cz], Chenstokhova [Rus], Chenstokhov, Chestokhova, Tshenstokhov, Yiddish: טשענסטאכאוו. Russian: Ченстохова. 50°48' N, 19°07' E, 60 miles NW of Kraków, 67 miles SSW of Łódź.1900 Jewish population: 11,764.
Yizkors: Tshenstokhover yidn (New York, 1947); Sefer Tshenstokhov (Jerusalem, 1967-1968); Churban Czenstochow (West Germany, 1948); Tshenstokhover landsmanshaft in Montreal (Montreal, 1966); Tshenstokhov; naye tsugob-material tsum bukh "Tshenstokhover yidn" (New York, 1958); Czenstochov: our legacy (Montreal, 1993). The Maple Tree Behind The Barbed Wire (A Story of Survival from the Czestochowa Ghetto). New book in 2013.
Research group. [August 2010]
Town is located in Czestochowa. Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), I, pp. 853-861: "Częstochowa". A city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants in 2004 and in the Silesian Voivodeship (administrative division) since 1999 and previously the capital of Częstochowa Voivodeship (1975-1998). Historically part of Lesser Poland, not of Silesia and before 1795, it belonged to the Kraków Voivodeship.The town is known for the famous Pauline Monastery of Jasna Góra and its Black Madonna (Our Lady of Czestochowa) painting that attracts visitors from all over the world. Cemetery photos. Memorial. The town was renamed Tschenstochau when occupied by Nazi Germany on Sunday, September 3, 1939, two days after they invaded Poland. The next day, called Bloody Monday, about 150 Jews were murdered by the Germans. On April 9, 1941, a ghetto was created. Approximately 45,000 of Częstochowa's Jews (one third of the total population) were murdered by the Germans during WWII, almost the entire Jewish community. Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, Maus by Art Spiegelman (son of a Częstochowa Jew). The city was liberated by the Red Army on January 16, 1945. [April 2009]
The origin of the Jewish community of Czestochowa dates from 1700 when a dozen Jewish families lived in the city, most as weavers and tradesmen. Approximately in 1765, construction of the first synagogue began. Historical sources show that Jews took part in the cultural and social life of the city. The Director of the Jewish gymnasium, Daniel Neufeld, was arrested in 1863 for actions to secure independence and oppose the introduction of Russian as the language of instruction. Prior to Poland regaining its independence, the Jews hid Polish flags in the synagogue. Many Jews worked in municipal institutions, associations, and social organizations together with Christian. [April 2009]
CEMETERY: website in Polish with memorials to the town's slain Jews and some text on its history. "A huge cemetery, but completely engulfed by a forest. There is virtually no trace of a cemetery left. Many tombstones are under vines and bushes. Source: Daniel Kazez on JewishGen Digest" 
Cemetery restoration project. photos. July 2007 vandalism. The 8.5 hectare Jewish cemetery in Czestochowa was established in 1799 (other sources say 1780) on the right bank of the Warta is one of the largest cemeteries in the country with about 4,500 graves. The oldest surviing tombstone dates from the early 19th century. On the tombstones are still traces of original polychrome. Ohel of tzaddik Justman, who died in 1920, is visited annually by Chassids from all over the world. photos [April 2009]
MASS GRAVE: During WWII, the cemetery was the site of the execution of the Czestochowa Jews. The last burial took place in 1970, but illicit burials were made for another three years. [April 2009]
US Commission Report No. 112L
Cemetery: Zlota Str. 1991 population: over 100,000 with 10-100 Jews.
1921 census was 22,663 Jews (28.2% of the population). The landmarked Orthodox Jewish cemetery dates from the first quarter of the 19th century. Justman was buried here. The last known Jewish burial was 1965. The isolated, suburban flat land has no sign or marker. Access across private property is open with permission via a broken masonry wall with non-locking gate. The approximate size of the cemetery before WWII and now is 8.5 ha. 500-5000 gravestones appear in original locations with 100-500 moved. Less than 25% of are toppled or broken. The 19th and 20th century sandstone finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decorations, or multi-stone monuments have Hebrew and Polish inscriptions. There are special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims and marked mass graves. The property now used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are commercial or industrial. The cemetery was not vandalized in the last ten years. Vegetation is a moderate threat.
|Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 18:17|