Alternate names: Bychawa [Pol], Bichava [Yid], Bykhava [Rus], Bekheve, Bikhava, Byckov, Yiddish: בעכעווע. Hebrew: ביחאוה. Russian: Быхава. 51°01' N, 22°32' E, 16 miles S of Lublin. Yizkor: Bychawa; sefer zikaron, (Israel, 1968). 1900 Jewish population: about 1,500. Bychawa is a town in Lublin Voivodeship, in Lublin County, about 25 km S of Lublin with 5,327 inhabitants in 2004.Gmina Bychawa is an urban-rural administrative district) in Lublin County, Lublin Voivodeship in E Poland with the town of Bychawa as seat. The gmina 2006 population is 12,311 (town is 5,285). Gmina Bychawa contains the villages and settlements of Bychawka Druga, Bychawka Druga-Kolonia, Bychawka Pierwsza, Bychawka Trzecia, Bychawka Trzecia-Kolonia, Gałęzów, Gałęzów-Kolonia Druga, Gałęzów-Kolonia Pierwsza, Grodzany, Józwów, Kosarzew Dolny-Kolonia, Kowersk, Łęczyca, Leśniczówka, Marysin, Olszowiec, Olszowiec-Kolonia, Osowa, Osowa-Kolonia, Podzamcze, Romanów, Skawinek, Stara Wieś Druga, Stara Wieś Pierwsza, Stara Wieś Trzecia, Urszulin, Wandzin, Wincentówek, Wola Duża, Wola Duża-Kolonia, Wola Gałęzowska, Wola Gałęzowska-Kolonia, Zadębie, Zaraszów, Zaraszów-Kolonia and Zdrapy. town website with photos.Jewish settlement dates from the second half of the 16th century, but the Jewish community was created in the 17th century. By the beginning of the 20th century a majority of the city's inhabitants were Jews. Closely tied with Lublin, Zamosc; and Krasnik by trade and crafts, the 17th century wars led to the city's decline. The imposing synagogue built in 1801 (probably where an older wooden one stood) was destroyed by a fire at the end of the 19th century. The synagogue was rebuilt in 1897 and now a warehouse and motor shop. [April 2009]
REFERENCE: Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel A Guide to East-Central Europe . New York: John Wiley &Sons, Inc., 1992. p. 74
REFERENCE: Stare cmentarze rzymskokatolickie w Bychawie i Bychawce: praca zbiorowa. Maria Debowczyk (ed.). Bychawa: Bychawskie Towarzystwo Regionalne, 1999. 168 p, photographs, cemetery plan, bibliography, name index."The work aims to document two old cemeteries situated in neighboring towns of Bychawa and Bychawka (Lublin region). The gravestones were selected for their artistic merit. Most of them date from mid XIX century to the beginning of the XX century, with a few exceptions in the cases of people who were particularly notable citizens. The description of each gravestone contains its location on the cemetery, a description, the text of the inscription, a photograph, and (in most cases) biographical information about the deceased. The book is accompanied with an alphabetical name index."
BYCHAWA I: US Commission No. POCE000179
The cemetery is in the town center, about 100 meters NE of the market square at Kosciuszki St. 1991 town population: 1,000-5,000 with no Jews.
The earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1921 Jewish population (census) was 1876 persons or 66%. The Orthodox Jewish cemetery was established in the 17th century with last burial in 1941. The isolated urban hillside has sign in Polish mentioning Jews. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a broken masonry wall and a broken fence with a non-locking gate. Before the war, the cemetery was approximately.6 hectares. No stones are visible. The cemetery contains unmarked mass graves. Municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery only. Properties adjacent are commercial or industrial and a little users' valley [sic]. Compared to 1939, the size is smaller because of two drainage channels being developed. Rarely, private visitors stop. The cemetery was vandalized during World War II; no maintenance. Security and weather erosion are slight threats; pollution and incompatible nearby development are very serious threats; and vegetation and proposed development are moderate threats. The approach to the nearby bakery constitutes part of the former cemetery area. The drainage channel built for the bakery in 1988 runs through the lower part of the cemetery. Damage as well as repairs destroyed the cemetery.
Pawel Sygowski, ur. Walinowsiczyzna 6Ul59, 20-20A Lublin, tel. 77-20-78 completed survey July 1991. Mr. Sygowski conducted interviews during a visit in February 1990.
BYCHAWA II: US Commission No. POCE000180
This cemetery is located around 600 meters S of the town at Partyzantow St. This unlandmarked Orthodox Jewish cemetery was established around 1910. The isolated suburban flat land has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall, fence or gate. Before World War II, the cemetery was approximately .6 ha, but is now approximately .5 ha. No stones are visible; no known mass graves exist. A private individual owns site used for growing crops. Property adjacent is agricultural. The cemetery was vandalized after World War II; there is no maintenance. Security is a serious threat; planned incompatible development is a very serious threat. As the cemetery site is now used for crops, its original function has almost been forgotten. A serious threat is the ongoing one-family housing development that proceeds along the street from the S towards the cemetery.
Pawel Sygowski, ur. Ualinowskzyzwa 64159, 20-20A Lublin. tel. 77-20-78 completed survey and visited the site in February 1990. Interviews were done.