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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

[UPDATE] Tracing Jewish Heritage Along the Danube [March 2015]

[UPDATE] Graves Vandalized, Remains Scattered [March 2015]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
801 OROS: SzSzB
802 OROSHAZA: Bekes
803 ORVENYES: Vesz
804 OSZTOPAN: Somorgy
805 OZD: BoAZ
806 PACIN: BAZ
807 PAKS: TOLNA
808 PALFA: Tolna
809 PALHAZA: BAZ
810 PALOTABOZSOK: Baranya
811 PALOTAS: NOGR
812 PANNONHALMA: (Gyorszentmarton) GYMS
813 PANYOLA: SzSzB
814 PAP: SzSzB
815 PAPA: VESZ
816 PAPOC: Vas
817 PAPOS: SzSzB
818 PARAD: Heves
819 PASZAB: SzSzB
820 PASZTO: Heves
821 PATAHAZA
822 PATROHA: SzSzB
823 PATY: Pest
824 PATYOD: SzSzB
825 PAZMAND: Fejer
826 PECEL: PEST
827 PECS: Baranya
828 PECSDEVECSER: Barany
829 PECSVARAD: BRNY
830 PELY: Heves
831 PENC: NOGR
832 PENESZLEK: SzSzB
833 PENYIGE
834 PENYIGE: SzSzB
835 PERE: BAZ
836 PERKATA: Fejer
837 PERKUPA: BAZ
838 PEST
839 PETERD: Baranya
840 PETERI: Pest
841 PETERVASARA: HEVES
842 PETNEHAZA: SzSzB
843 PILIS: PPSK
844 PILISCSABA: Pest
845 PILISVOROSVAR: Pest
846 PILLS: Pest
847 PINCEHELY: Tolna
848 PIRICSE: SzSzB
849 PISZTADOBOS: SzSzB
850 PITVAROS: Csong
851 POCSA: Baranya
852 POCSAJ: H&B
853 POCSPETRI: SzSzB
854 POLANY: Somorgy
855 POLGAR: H&B
856 POLGARDI: Fejer
857 POMAZ: Pest
858 PORCSALMA: SzSzB
859 POROSZLO: HEVES
860 POTYOND: GYMS
861 PRUGY: SzSzB
862 PSUZTAKOVACSI: Somorgy
863 PUSPOKLADANY: H&B
864 PUSPOKMAROK: Baranya
865 PUSPOLSZENTERZSEBET: Baranya
866 PUTNOK: BoAZ
867 RABAHIDVEG: Vas
868 RACALMAS [Rácalmás]: Fejer
869 RACKERESTUR: Fejer
870 RACKEVE: PEST
871 RACMECSKE: Baranya
872 RAD: NOGR
873 RAJKA: GYMS
874 RAKACA: BAZ
875 RAKACASZEND: BAZ
876 RAKAMAZ: SzSzB
877 RAKOCZIFALVA: JNS
878 RAKOSKERESZTURI
879 Rákospalota: see Budapest
880 RAMOCSAHAZA: SzSzB
881 RAPOLT: SzSzB
882 RECSK: Heves
883 REDE: KESD
884 REGOLY: Tolna
885 RETKOZBERENCS: SzSzB
886 RETSAG: NOGR
887 RICSE: BAZ
888 ROHOD: SzSzB
889 ROMHANY: NOGR
890 ROZSALY: SzSzB
891 RUDABANYA: BAZ
892 RUDABANYACSKA: BAZ
893 SAJOGALGOC: BAZ
894 SAJOIVANKA: BAZ
895 SAJOKAZA: BAZ
896 SAJOKERESZTUR: BAZ
897 SAJOLAD: BAZ
898 SAJOMERZSE: BAZ
899 SAJONEMETI: BAZ
900 SAJOPETRI: BAZ
 
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