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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
701 NAGYBANHEGYES: Bekes
702 NAGYBARACSKA: B-K
703 NAGYBERENY: Somogy
704 NAGYBORZSONY: Pest
705 NAGYBOZSVA: BAZ
706 NAGYCSECS: BAX
707 NAGYCSEPELY: Somogy
708 NAGYDEM: Vesz
709 NAGYDOBOS: SzSzB
710 NAGYDOROG: Tolna
711 NAGYECSED: SzSzB
712 NAGYFUGED: Heves
713 NAGYGEC: SzSzB
714 NAGYHALASZ: SzSzB
715 NAGYHODOS: SzSzB
716 NAGYIGMAND: NESZ
717 NAGYKALLO: SzSzB
718 NAGYKANIZSA: ZALA
719 NAGYKATA: PEST
720 NAGYKEREKI: H&B
721 NAGYKONYI: Tolna
722 NAGYKOROS: Pest
723 NAGYKORU: JNS
724 NAGYMAROS: PEST
725 NAGYOROSZI: NOGR
726 NAGYRABE: H&B
727 NAGYSAP: KESD
728 NAGYSIMONYI: Vas
729 NAGYSZAKACSI: Somogy
730 NAGYSZEKERES: SzSzB
731 NAGYSZOKOLY: Tolna
732 NAGYTETENY
733 NAGYVARAD
734 NAGYVAZSONY: Veszprem
735 NAGYVISNYO: BAZ
736 NAPKOR: SzSzB
737 NEGYES: BAZ
738 NEMESBIKK: BAZ
739 NEMESDED: Somogy
740 NEMESHANY: Vesz
741 NEMESSZALOK: Vesz
742 NEMESVID: Somogy
743 Neu-Pest / Újpest
744 NIKLA: Somorgy
745 NOGRAD: NOGR
746 NOGRADKOVESD: NOGR
747 NOTINCS: NOGR
748 NOVAJIDRANY: BAZ
749 NOVJ: BAZ
750 NYAREGYHAZA
751 NYARSAPAK
752 NYEKLADHAZA: BAZ
753 NYERGESUFALU: KESD
754 NYIRABRANY: H&B
755 NYIRACSAD: H&B
756 NYIRADONY: H&B
757 NYIRBATOR: SzSzB
758 NYIRBELTELEK: SzSzB
759 NYIRBOGAT: SzSzB
760 NYIRBOGDANY: SzSzB
761 NYIRCSAHOLY: SzSzB
762 NYIRCSASZARI: SzSzB
763 NYIRDERZS: SzSzB
764 NYIREGYHAZA: SzSzB
765 NYIRGELSE: SzSzB
766 NYIRGYULA: SzSzB
767 NYIRJAKO: (Jako) SzSzB
768 NYIRKARASZ: SzSzB
769 NYIRKATA
770 NYIRKATA-GEBE: SzSzB
771 NYIRLUGOS: SzSzB
772 NYIRMADA: SzSzB
773 NYIRMEGGYES: SzSzB
774 NYIRMIHALYDI: SzSzB
775 NYIRPARASZNYA: SzSzB
776 NYIRPAZONY: SzSzB
777 NYIRPILIS: SzSzB
778 NYIRTASS: SzSzB
779 NYIRTURA: SzSzB
780 NYIRVASVARI: SzSzB
781 NYOMAR: BAZ
782 NYUL: GYMS
783 OBUDA: see Budapest
784 OCS: Vesz
785 OCSA: Pest
786 OCSENY: Tolna
787 OCSOD: JNS
788 OEDENBUTG
789 OFEHERTO: SzSzB
790 OKANY: H&B
791 OKORITOFULPOS: SzSzB
792 OLASZLISZKA: BAZ
793 OLCSVA: H&B
794 OND: BAZ
795 ONGA: BAZ
796 ONOD: BAZ
797 OPALYI: SzSzB
798 OR: Nyirbakta
799 ORKENY: Pest
800 OROS: SzSzB
 
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