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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

[UPDATE] Tracing Jewish Heritage Along the Danube [March 2015]

[UPDATE] Graves Vandalized, Remains Scattered [March 2015]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
601 LAK: BAZ
602 LASKOD: SzSzB
603 LATGALE
604 LATRANY: Somogy
605 LEANYFALU: Pest
606 LEGEND: NOGR
607 LEGYESBENYE: BAZ
608 LENARDDAROC: BAZ
609 LENGYELTÓTI: SMGY
610 LESENCEFALU: Vesz
611 LESENCEISTVAND: Vesz
612 LETAVERTES: H&B
613 LETENYE: ZALA
614 LEVELEK: SzSzB
615 LIGET: Baranya
616 LIPTOD:
617 LITKA: BAZ
618 LONYA: SzSzB
619 LORINCI: HEVES
620 LOVASBERENY: Fejer
621 LOVASZPATONA: Vesz
622 LOVOPETRI: SzSzB
623 LOWY
624 MAD: BAZ
625 MADARAS: B-K
626 MAGLOD: Pest
627 MAGOCS: Baranya
628 MAGOSLIGET: SzSzB
629 MAGY: SzSzB
630 MAGYARBANHEGYES: Bekes
631 MAGYARBOLY: Baranya
632 MAGYARHOMOROG: H&B
633 MAGYARKESZI: Tolna
634 MAKKOSHOTYKA: BAZ
635 MAKO: CSONG
636 MALYI: BAZ
637 MALYINKA: BAZ
638 MAND: SzSzB
639 MANDOK: Tisza
640 MARAZA: Baranya
641 MARAZA: Baranya
642 MARCALI: SMGY
643 MARIAPOCS: SzSzB
644 MARTONVASAR: Fejer
645 MARTONYI: BAZ
646 MATESZALKA: SzSzB
647 MATRATERENYE: NOGR
648 MEDGYESEGYHAZA: Bekes
649 MEDINA: Tolna
650 MEGYASZO: BAZ
651 MEHTELEK: SzSzB
652 MELYKUT: B-K
653 MENCSHELY: Vesz
654 MENDE: Pest
655 MERA: BAZ
656 MERK: SzSzB
657 MERNYE: Somogy
658 MESZES: BAZ
659 MEZOBERENY: Bekes
660 MEZOCSAT: BoAZ
661 MEZOFALVA: Fejer
662 MEZOGYAN: Bekes
663 MEZOKERESZTES: BAZ
664 MEZOKOMAROM: Fejer
665 MEZOKOVACSHAZA: Bekes
666 MEZOKOVESD: BoAZ
667 MEZOLADANY: SzSzB
668 MEZONAGYMIHALY: BAZ
669 MEZOORS: GYMS
670 MEZOSZEMERE: Heves
671 MEZOTARKANY: Heves
672 MEZOTUR: JNS
673 MEZOZOMBOR: BAZ
674 MIKEPERCS: H&B
675 MIKOHAZA
676 MIKOHAZA: BAZ
677 MILOTA: SzSzB
678 MINDSZENT: CSONG
679 MINDSZENTGODISA: Baranya
680 MISKE: B-K
681 MISKOLC: BAZ
682 MODYOROD: Pest
683 MOHACS: BRNY
684 MONOK: BAZ
685 MONOR
686 MONOSBEL: Heves
687 MONOSTOR: Heves
688 MONOSTORAPATI: Vesz
689 MONOSTORPALYI: H&B
690 MONOSZLO: Vesz
691 MOR: FEJER
692 MOSDOS: Somogy
693 MOSONMAGYAROVAR: GYMS ( Magyaróvár and Moson)m Wieselburgm Altenburg, Óvár
694 MUCSONY: BAZ
695 MUKACHEVO
696 MUNKACS
697 NABRAD: SzSzB
698 NADUDVAR: H&B
699 NAGY-MARTON
700 NAGYATA'D: SMGY
 
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