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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
601 LASKOD: SzSzB
602 LATGALE
603 LATRANY: Somogy
604 LEANYFALU: Pest
605 LEGEND: NOGR
606 LEGYESBENYE: BAZ
607 LENARDDAROC: BAZ
608 LENGYELTÓTI: SMGY
609 LESENCEFALU: Vesz
610 LESENCEISTVAND: Vesz
611 LETAVERTES: H&B
612 LETENYE: ZALA
613 LEVELEK: SzSzB
614 LIGET: Baranya
615 LIPTOD:
616 LITKA: BAZ
617 LONYA: SzSzB
618 LORINCI: HEVES
619 LOVASBERENY: Fejer
620 LOVASZPATONA: Vesz
621 LOVOPETRI: SzSzB
622 LOWY
623 MAD: BAZ
624 MADARAS: B-K
625 MAGLOD: Pest
626 MAGOCS: Baranya
627 MAGOSLIGET: SzSzB
628 MAGY: SzSzB
629 MAGYARBANHEGYES: Bekes
630 MAGYARBOLY: Baranya
631 MAGYARHOMOROG: H&B
632 MAGYARKESZI: Tolna
633 MAKKOSHOTYKA: BAZ
634 MAKO: CSONG
635 MALYI: BAZ
636 MALYINKA: BAZ
637 MAND: SzSzB
638 MANDOK: Tisza
639 MARAZA: Baranya
640 MARAZA: Baranya
641 MARCALI: SMGY
642 MARIAPOCS: SzSzB
643 MARTONVASAR: Fejer
644 MARTONYI: BAZ
645 MATESZALKA: SzSzB
646 MATRATERENYE: NOGR
647 MEDGYESEGYHAZA: Bekes
648 MEDINA: Tolna
649 MEGYASZO: BAZ
650 MEHTELEK: SzSzB
651 MELYKUT: B-K
652 MENCSHELY: Vesz
653 MENDE: Pest
654 MERA: BAZ
655 MERK: SzSzB
656 MERNYE: Somogy
657 MESZES: BAZ
658 MEZOBERENY: Bekes
659 MEZOCSAT: BoAZ
660 MEZOFALVA: Fejer
661 MEZOGYAN: Bekes
662 MEZOKERESZTES: BAZ
663 MEZOKOMAROM: Fejer
664 MEZOKOVACSHAZA: Bekes
665 MEZOKOVESD: BoAZ
666 MEZOLADANY: SzSzB
667 MEZONAGYMIHALY: BAZ
668 MEZOORS: GYMS
669 MEZOSZEMERE: Heves
670 MEZOTARKANY: Heves
671 MEZOTUR: JNS
672 MEZOZOMBOR: BAZ
673 MIKEPERCS: H&B
674 MIKOHAZA
675 MIKOHAZA: BAZ
676 MILOTA: SzSzB
677 MINDSZENT: CSONG
678 MINDSZENTGODISA: Baranya
679 MISKE: B-K
680 MISKOLC: BAZ
681 MODYOROD: Pest
682 MOHACS: BRNY
683 MONOK: BAZ
684 MONOR
685 MONOSBEL: Heves
686 MONOSTOR: Heves
687 MONOSTORAPATI: Vesz
688 MONOSTORPALYI: H&B
689 MONOSZLO: Vesz
690 MOR: FEJER
691 MOSDOS: Somogy
692 MOSONMAGYAROVAR: GYMS ( Magyaróvár and Moson)m Wieselburgm Altenburg, Óvár
693 MUCSONY: BAZ
694 MUKACHEVO
695 MUNKACS
696 NABRAD: SzSzB
697 NADUDVAR: H&B
698 NAGY-MARTON
699 NAGYATA'D: SMGY
700 NAGYBAJOM: Somorgy
 
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