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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
501 KAPOSVAR: SMGY
502 KAPTALANTOTA: Vesz
503 KAPUVAR: GYMS
504 KARAD: Somogy
505 KARANCSLAPUJTO: NOGR
506 KARCAG: JNS
507 KATYMAR: B-K
508 KAZINCBARCIKA: BoAZ
509 KECEL: Bacs-Kishun
510 KECSKEMET: BKK
511 KEK: SzSzB
512 KEKCSE
513 KEKED: BAZ
514 KEMECSE: SzSzB
515 KEMENESHOGYESZ: Vas
516 KENDERES: JNS
517 KENEZLO: BAZ
518 KEREKEGYHAZA: B-K
519 KEREPSI
520 KERSEMJEN: SzSzB
521 KERTA: Vesz
522 KESZ
523 KESZTHELY: ZALA
524 KETBODONY: NOGR
525 KETEGHAZA: Bekes
526 KETHELY: Somogy
527 KETY: Tolna
528 KEVERMES: Bekes
529 KISAR: SzSzB
530 KISBER: KESZ
531 KISGYOR: BAZ
532 KISHVARDA
533 KISKORE: Heves
534 KISKOROS: BKK
535 KISKUNFELEGYHAZA: BKK
536 KISKUNHALAS: B-K
537 KISKUNLACHAZA
538 KISKUNMAJSA: BKK
539 KISLETA: SzSzB
540 KISMAROS: Pest
541 KISNAMENY: SzSzB
542 KISNYARAD: Baranya
543 KISPALAD: SzSzB
544 KISROZVAGY: BAZ
545 KISSIKATOR: BAZ
546 KISSZEKELY: Tolna
547 KISSZEKERES: SzSzB
548 KISTARCSA: Pest
549 KISTELEK: CSONG
550 KISTOKAJ: BAZ
551 KISUJSZALLAS: JNS
552 KISVARDA: SzSzB
553 KISVARSANY: SzSzB
554 KISZOMBOR: Csong
555 KLEINWARDEIN
556 KOBANYA
557 KOCSOLA: Tolna
558 KOCSORD: SzSzB
559 KOKA: Pest
560 KOLESD: Tolna
561 KOMADI: H&B
562 KOMAROM: KESZ
563 KOMJATI: BAZ
564 KOMLO: Baranya
565 KOMLO: Heves
566 KOMLOD: KESZ
567 KONDOROS: Bekes
568 KONYAR: H&B
569 KORLAT
570 KORLAT: BAZ
571 KORMEND: VAS
572 KOROM: BAZ
573 KOROSHEGY: Somogy
574 KOROSLADANY: Bekes
575 KOROSNAGYHARSANY: Bekes
576 KOROSTARCSA: Bekes
577 KOSZEG: VAS
578 KOTAJ: SzSzB
579 KOTCSE: Somogy
580 KOTEGYAN: Bekes
581 KOTELEK: JNS
582 KOVÁCSVÁGÁS
583 KOVACSVAGAS: BAZ
584 KOVAGOORS: Vesz
585 KOZARMISLENY: Baranja
586 KOZMATUR: Heves
587 KRASZNOKVAJDA: BAZ
588 KUNAGOTA: Bekes
589 KUNGOS
590 KUNHEGYES: JNS
591 KUNMADARAS: JNS
592 KUNSZENTMARTON: JNS
593 KUNSZENTMIKLOS: BKK
594 KUPA: BAZ
595 KUSTYA: Heves
596 LABATLAN: KESZ
597 LABOD: Somogy
598 LAD: Somogy
599 LAJOSMIZSE: BKK
600 LAK: BAZ
 
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