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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
401 HARSANY: BAZ
402 HATVAN: Heves
403 HEDREHELY: Somogy
404 HEGYALJAI
405 HEGYMEG: BAZ
406 HEJOBABA: BAZ
407 HEJOKERESZTUR: BAZ
408 HEJOPAPI: BAZ
409 HEJOSZALONTA: BAZ
410 HENCIDA: H&B
411 HERCEGKUT: BAZ
412 HERCEGSZANTO: B-K
413 HERENCSENY: NOGR
414 HEREND: Vesz
415 HERESZNYE: Somogy
416 HERNADANMETI
417 HERNADBUD: BAZ
418 HERNADCECE: BAZ
419 HERNADNEMETI: BAZ
420 HERNADSZURDOK: BAZ
421 HERNADVECSE: BAZ
422 HETES: Somogy
423 HEVES: Heves
424 HEVIZGYORK: Pest
425 HEZIV: ZALA
426 HIDAS: Baranya
427 HIDASNEMETI
428 HIDASNEMETI: BAZ
429 HIDEGKUT: Vesz
430 HIDVEGARDO: BAZ
431 HIMESHAZA: Baranya
432 HODASZ: SzSzB
433 HODMEZOVASARHELY: CSONG
434 HODOSCSEPANY: BAZ
435 HOGYESZ: Tolna
436 HOLLOHAZA: BAZ
437 HOMROGD: BAZ
438 HORT: Heves
439 HOSSZUHETENY: Baranya
440 HOSSZUPALYI: H&B
441 IBRANY: SzSZB
442 IGRICI: BAZ
443 IHAROSBERENY: Somogy
444 ILK: SzSzB
445 ILLOCSKA: Baranya
446 INANCS: BAZ
447 IREGSZEMCSE: Tolna
448 IRSA
449 ISASZEG: Pest
450 ISTENMEZEJE: Heves
451 IVANBALTYAN
452 IVANBATTYAN: Baranya
453 IVANCSA: Fejer
454 IZSAK: Csong
455 IZSOFALVA: BAZ
456 JAKFALVA: BAZ
457 JAND: SzSzB
458 JANKMAJTIS: SzSzB
459 JANOSHALMA: B-K
460 JANOSHAZA: GYMS
461 JANOSHIDA: JNS
462 JARDANHAZA: BAZ
463 JARMI: SzSzB
464 JASZALSOSZENTGYORGY: JNS
465 JASZAPATI: JNS
466 JASZAROKHALMA: JNS
467 JASZAROKSZALLAS: JNS
468 JASZBERENY: JNS
469 JASZDOZSA: JNS
470 JASZFENYSZARU: JNS
471 JASZJAKOHALMA: JNS
472 JASZKARAJENO: Pest
473 JASZKISER: JNS
474 JASZLADANY: JNS
475 JASZMIHALYTELEK: JNS
476 JASZSENTANDRAS: JNS
477 JEKE: SzSzB
478 JOBBAGYI: NOGR
479 JOSVAFO: BAZ
480 JOZSA: H&B
481 KABA: H&B
482 KACS: BAZ
483 KACSOTA: Baranya
484 KADARKUT: Somogy
485 KAJARPEC: GYMS
486 KAJASZO: Fejer
487 KAL: Heves
488 KALAZ: Pest
489 KALD: Vas
490 KALLO: NOGR
491 KALLOSEMJEN: SzSzB
492 KALOCSA: BKK
493 KALOZ: Fejer
494 KANTORJANOSI
495 KANTORJANOSI: SzSzB
496 KANY: BAZ
497 KAPOLCS: Vesz
498 KAPOLNASNYEK: Fejer
499 KAPOSMERO: Somogy
500 KAPOSSZEKCSO: Tolna
 
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