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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

[UPDATE] Tracing Jewish Heritage Along the Danube [March 2015]

[UPDATE] Graves Vandalized, Remains Scattered [March 2015]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
401 HAROMHUTA: BAZ
402 HARSANY: BAZ
403 HATVAN: Heves
404 HEDREHELY: Somogy
405 HEGYALJAI
406 HEGYMEG: BAZ
407 HEJOBABA: BAZ
408 HEJOKERESZTUR: BAZ
409 HEJOPAPI: BAZ
410 HEJOSZALONTA: BAZ
411 HENCIDA: H&B
412 HERCEGKUT: BAZ
413 HERCEGSZANTO: B-K
414 HERENCSENY: NOGR
415 HEREND: Vesz
416 HERESZNYE: Somogy
417 HERNADANMETI
418 HERNADBUD: BAZ
419 HERNADCECE: BAZ
420 HERNADNEMETI: BAZ
421 HERNADSZURDOK: BAZ
422 HERNADVECSE: BAZ
423 HETES: Somogy
424 HEVES: Heves
425 HEVIZGYORK: Pest
426 HEZIV: ZALA
427 HIDAS: Baranya
428 HIDASNEMETI
429 HIDASNEMETI: BAZ
430 HIDEGKUT: Vesz
431 HIDVEGARDO: BAZ
432 HIMESHAZA: Baranya
433 HODASZ: SzSzB
434 HODMEZOVASARHELY: CSONG
435 HODOSCSEPANY: BAZ
436 HOGYESZ: Tolna
437 HOLLOHAZA: BAZ
438 HOMROGD: BAZ
439 HORT: Heves
440 HOSSZUHETENY: Baranya
441 HOSSZUPALYI: H&B
442 IBRANY: SzSZB
443 IGRICI: BAZ
444 IHAROSBERENY: Somogy
445 ILK: SzSzB
446 ILLOCSKA: Baranya
447 INANCS: BAZ
448 IREGSZEMCSE: Tolna
449 IRSA
450 ISASZEG: Pest
451 ISTENMEZEJE: Heves
452 IVANBALTYAN
453 IVANBATTYAN: Baranya
454 IVANCSA: Fejer
455 IZSAK: Csong
456 IZSOFALVA: BAZ
457 JAKFALVA: BAZ
458 JAND: SzSzB
459 JANKMAJTIS: SzSzB
460 JANOSHALMA: B-K
461 JANOSHAZA: GYMS
462 JANOSHIDA: JNS
463 JARDANHAZA: BAZ
464 JARMI: SzSzB
465 JASZALSOSZENTGYORGY: JNS
466 JASZAPATI: JNS
467 JASZAROKHALMA: JNS
468 JASZAROKSZALLAS: JNS
469 JASZBERENY: JNS
470 JASZDOZSA: JNS
471 JASZFENYSZARU: JNS
472 JASZJAKOHALMA: JNS
473 JASZKARAJENO: Pest
474 JASZKISER: JNS
475 JASZLADANY: JNS
476 JASZMIHALYTELEK: JNS
477 JASZSENTANDRAS: JNS
478 JEKE: SzSzB
479 JOBBAGYI: NOGR
480 JOSVAFO: BAZ
481 JOZSA: H&B
482 KABA: H&B
483 KACS: BAZ
484 KACSOTA: Baranya
485 KADARKUT: Somogy
486 KAJARPEC: GYMS
487 KAJASZO: Fejer
488 KAL: Heves
489 KALAZ: Pest
490 KALD: Vas
491 KALLO: NOGR
492 KALLOSEMJEN: SzSzB
493 KALOCSA: BKK
494 KALOZ: Fejer
495 KANTORJANOSI
496 KANTORJANOSI: SzSzB
497 KANY: BAZ
498 KAPOLCS: Vesz
499 KAPOLNASNYEK: Fejer
500 KAPOSMERO: Somogy
 
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