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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
301 FEKED: Barany
302 FELCSUT: Fejer
303 FELDEBRO: Heves
304 FELPEC: GYMS
305 FELSOGAGY: BoAZ
306 FELSOGEMENC: Heves
307 FELSOJOZSA: H&B
308 FELSOKELECSENY: BAZ
309 FELSOMOCSOLAD: Somogy
310 FELSONYARAD: BAZ
311 FELSONYEK: Tolna
312 FELSOORS: Vesz
313 FELSOREGMEC: BAZ
314 FELSOSZENTIVAN: B-K
315 FELSOSZOLCA: BAZ
316 FENYESLITKE: SSB
317 FERTOSZENTMIKLOS: GYMS
318 FOKTO: Heves
319 FOLDES: H&B
320 FONYÓD: SMGY
321 FUGOD: BAZ
322 FULESD: SSB
323 FULOKERCS: BAZ
324 FULOPSZALLAS: B-K
325 FUNFKIRCHEN
326 FURTA: H&B
327 FUZERRADVANY: BAZ
328 FUZESABONY: HEGER
329 FUZESGYARMAT: Bekes
330 GABORJAN: H&B
331 GACSALY: SSB
332 GADNA: BAZ
333 GADOROS: Bekes
334 GALGAGYORK: Pest
335 GALOSFA: Somogy
336 GALVACS: BAZ
337 GAMAS: Somogy
338 GARA: B-K
339 GARADNA: BAZ
340 GARBOLC: SSB
341 GARDONY: FEJER
342 GARDOS: SSB
343 GAVAVENCSELLO: SSB
344 GEBE: SSB
345 GEGENY: SSB
346 GELEJ: BAZ
347 GELENES: Szobolsz County, Satmar Region
348 GEMSZE
349 GEMZSE: SzSzB
350 GERESDLAK: Barany
351 GERGELYIUGORNA: SSB
352 GESZTELY: BAZ
353 GESZTERED: SzSzB
354 GIBA'RT: BAZ
355 GIC: Vesz
356 GIGE: Somogy
357 GIRINCS: BAZ
358 GOD (FELSO): Pest
359 GODOLLO: Pest
360 GOLOP: BAZ
361 GOMBA: Pest
362 GONC: BAZ
363 GONCRUSZKA: BAZ
364 GORCSONYDOBOKA: Barany
365 GROSS KANIZSA
366 GULACS: SzSzB
367 GYARMAT: Vesz
368 GYMS
369 GYOMAENDROD: Bekes
370 GYOMORE: GYMS
371 GYOMRO: Pest
372 GYON: Pest
373 GYONGYOS: Heves
374 GYONGYOSMELLEK: Baranya
375 GYONGYOSPATA: Heves
376 GYONK: Tolna
377 GYOR: GYMS
378 GYORASSZONYFA: GYMS
379 GYORKONY: Tolna
380 GYORSZEMERE: GYMS
381 GYORTELEK: SzSzB
382 GYORUJBARAT: GYMS
383 GYUGYE: SzSzB
384 GYULA: Bekes
385 GYULAHAZA: SzSzB
386 GYULAJ: Tolna
387 GYURE: SzSzB
388 HABS
389 HAJDUBAGOS: H&B
390 HAJDUBOSZORMENY: H&B
391 HAJDUDOROG: H&B
392 HAJDUHADHAZ: H&B
393 HAJDUNANAS: H&B
394 HAJDUSAMSON: H&B
395 HAJDUSZOBOSZLO: H&B
396 HAJDUSZOVAT: H&B
397 HALMAJ: BAZ
398 HANGACS: BAZ
399 HARKANY: Baranya
400 HAROMHUTA: BAZ
 
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