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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
101 BATA: Tolna
102 BATASZEK: TOLNA
103 BATCHEV
104 BATOR: Heves
105 BATTONYA: Bekes
106 BATYA: B-K
107 BECSKEHAZA: BAZ
108 BEKECS: BAZ
109 BEKES: Bekes
110 BEKESCSABA: Bekes
111 BEKESSZENTANDRAS: Bekes
112 BELAPATFALVA: Heves
113 BELED: GMS
114 BELSOBOCS: BAZ
115 BELVARD: Baranya
116 BENYE: Pest
117 BERBALTAVAR: Vas
118 BERCEL: NOGR
119 BEREGDAROC: SSB
120 BEREGSURANY: SSB
121 BEREKBOSZORMENY: H&B
122 BEREMEND: Baranya
123 BERENKA: BAZ
124 BERETTYOUJFALU: HAB
125 BERHIDA: Fejer
126 BERZEK: BAZ
127 BERZENCE: Somogy
128 BESENYOD: SSB
129 BESENYSZOG: JNS
130 BESZTERCZE: NOGR
131 BEZI: GMS
132 BIATORBAGY: Pest
133 BICSKE: FEJER, Pest
134 BIHARKERESZTES: H&B
135 BIHARNAGYBAJOM: H&B
136 BIHARTORDA: H&B
137 BIHARUGRA: Bekes
138 BIKAL: Baranya
139 BOCONAD: Heves
140 BODONY: NOGR
141 BODROGHALOM: BAZ
142 BODROGKERESZTUR: Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen
143 BODROGKISFALUD: BAZ
144 BODVALENKE: BAZ
145 BOGACS: BAZ
146 BOHONYE: Somogy
147 BOJT: B&H
148 BOKONY: HHB
149 BOLCSKE: Tolna
150 BOLDOGKOVARALJA: BAZ
151 BOLDVA: BAZ
152 BOLY: Baranya
153 BONY: GMS
154 BONYHAD: Sern, Tolna
155 BORGASZKA
156 BORSODGESZT: BAZ
157 BORSODNADASD: BAZ
158 BORSODSZENTGYORGY: BAZ
159 BOTPALAD: SSB
160 BUDAKALASZ: Pest
161 BUDAKESZI: Pest
162 BUDAPEST [Budin, Budon, Pest, Pesta, Obuda, Alt-Ofen, Kobanya
163 BUDSZENTMIHALY
164 BUGYI: Pest
165 BUJ: SSB
166 BUK: Vas
167 BUKKABRANY: BAZ
168 BUKKARANYOS: BAZ
169 BUKKMOGYOROSD: BAZ
170 BUKKSZEK: Heves
171 BUKKSZENTERZSEBET: Heves
172 BUKKSZENTMARTON: Heves
173 BUZSAK: Somogy
174 CAKOHAZA: GMS
175 CALGAMACSA: Pest
176 CECE: Fejer
177 CEGENYDANYAD: SSB
178 CEGLED: Pest
179 CELLDOMOLK: VAS
180 CERED: NOGR
181 CIBAKHAZA: JNS
182 CIGAND: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
183 CSABDI: Fejer
184 CSABRENDEK: Vesz
185 CSAHOLC: SSB
186 CSAJAG: Vesz
187 CSAKVAR: Fejer
188 CSANADAPACA: Bekes
189 CSANADPALOTA: BAZ
190 CSANY: Heves
191 CSARODA: SSB
192 CSASZARTOTLTES: B-K
193 CSASZLO: SSB
194 CSECSE: NOGR
195 CSENGER: SzSzB
196 CSENGERIUJFALU: SSB
197 CSEPA:JNS
198 CSEPREG: GYMS
199 CSEPREG: Tolna
200 CSERHATSZENTIVAN: NOGR
 
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