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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

[UPDATE] Tracing Jewish Heritage Along the Danube [March 2015]

[UPDATE] Graves Vandalized, Remains Scattered [March 2015]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
1101 TISZAPUSPOKI: JNS
1102 TISZARAD: SzSzB
1103 TISZAROFF: JNS
1104 TISZASULY: SzSzB
1105 TISZASZEDERKENY (TISZAUJVAROS): BAZ
1106 TISZASZENTIMRE: JNS
1107 TISZASZENTMARTON: SzSzB
1108 TISZASZOLOS: JNS
1109 TISZATARJAN: BAZ
1110 TISZAUJVAROS: BoAZ
1111 TISZAVALK: BAZ
1112 TISZAVARKONY: JNS
1113 TISZAVASVARI: (Büdszentmihály) SzSzB
1114 TISZAVID: SzSzB
1115 TISZMOGYOROS: SzSzB
1116 TIVADAR: SzSzB
1117 TOALMAS: Pest
1118 TOFALU: H&B
1119 TOKAJ: BoAZ
1120 TOKAY
1121 TOKOL: Pest
1122 TOLCSVA: BAZ
1123 TOLMACS: NOGR
1124 TOLNA: Tolna
1125 TOMOR: BAZ
1126 TOPONAR: Somogy
1127 TORNAKAPOLNA: BAZ
1128 TORNASZENTJAKAB: BAZ
1129 TORNYOSNEMETI: ZAB
1130 TORNYOSPALCA: SzSzB
1131 TOROKKOPPANY: Somogy
1132 TOROKSZENTMIKLOS:
1133 TOTFALU: Heves
1134 TOTHGYORK: Heves
1135 TOTKOMLOS: Bekes
1136 TOTTOS: Baranya
1137 TOTVAZSONY: Vesz
1138 TUNYOGMATOLCS: SzSzB
1139 TURA: Pest
1140 TURISTVANDI: SzSzB
1141 TURKEVE: JNS
1142 TUZSER: SzSzB
1143 TYUKOD: SzSzB
1144 UJFEHERTOIN: SzSzB
1145 UJHARTYAN: Pest
1146 UJHELY
1147 UJKENEZ: SzSzB
1148 ULLO: Pest
1149 UNY: KE
1150 URA: SzSzB
1151 URAJ: BAZ
1152 URI: Pest
1153 USZKA: SzSzB
1154 USZOD: B-K
1155 VAC: PEST [WAITZEN, VACOV, VACIUM, BASZ, VACS,VACZ]
1156 VACHARTYAN: Pest
1157 VACSZENTASZLO: Pest
1158 VADNA: BAZ
1159 VAGASHUTA: BAZ
1160 VAJA: SzSzB
1161 VAJDACSKA
1162 VAJDACSKA: BAZ
1163 VAJSZLO: Baranya
1164 VALKO: Pest
1165 VALKOD
1166 VAMOSATYA: SzSzB
1167 VAMOSMIKOLA: Pest
1168 VAMOSOROSZI: SzSzB
1169 VAMOSPERCS: H&B
1170 VAMOSUJFALU: BAJ
1171 VANCSOD: H&B
1172 VANYARC: NOGR
1173 VARBO: BAZ
1174 VARDA
1175 Varmellek: see Sarvar
1176 VARPALOTA: VESZP
1177 VAS
1178 VASAROSFALU: GYMS
1179 VASAROSNAMENY: SzSzB
1180 VASKUT: B-K
1181 VASMEGYER: Vas
1182 VASVAR: Vas
1183 VATTA: BAZ
1184 VECSES: Pest
1185 VELENCE: Fejer
1186 VEMEND: Batanya
1187 VERESEGYHAZ: Pest
1188 VEROCE: Pest
1189 VERPELET: Heves
1190 VERSEG: Pest
1191 VERSERD
1192 VERTES: H&B
1193 VERTESACSA: Fejer
1194 VESZPREM: Vesz
1195 VESZPREMVARSANY: Vesz
1196 VESZTO: Bekes
1197 VILLANY: Baranya
1198 VILMANY: BAZ
1199 VILYVITANY: BAJ
1200 VISS: SzSzB
 
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