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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

[UPDATE] Tracing Jewish Heritage Along the Danube [March 2015]

[UPDATE] Graves Vandalized, Remains Scattered [March 2015]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
1001 SZENTKATALIN: Barany
1002 SZENTKIRALYSZABADJA: Vesz
1003 SZENTLASZLO: Baranya
1004 SZENTLORINCKATA: Pest
1005 SZENTMARTONKATA: Pest
1006 SZEPHALOM (KISBANYACSKA): BAZ
1007 SZERENCS: BoAZ
1008 SZIGET
1009 SZIGETSZENTMIKLOS: PEST
1010 SZIGETVAR: BRNY
1011 SZIHALOM: Heves
1012 SZIKSZO: BoAZ
1013 SZILSARKANY
1014 SZILVASVARAD: Heves
1015 SZIRAK: NOGR
1016 SZOB: Pest
1017 SZOD
1018 SZODLIGET: Pest
1019 SZOLAD: Somogy
1020 SZOLNOK: JNS
1021 SZOLOSGYOROK: Somogy
1022 SZOMBATHELY: VAS
1023 SZOMOLYA: BAZ
1024 SZONY: KE
1025 SZUGY: NOGR
1026 SZUHAKALLO: BAZ
1027 SZUHOGY: BAZ
1028 SZULOK: Somogy
1029 SZURDOKPUSPOKI: NOGR
1030 TAB: Somogy
1031 TABAJD: Fejer
1032 TAC: Fejer
1033 TAG: SMGY
1034 TAHITOTFALU: Pest
1035 TAKOS: SzSzB
1036 TAKTABAJ: BAZ
1037 TAKTAHARKANY: BAZ
1038 TAKTAKENEZ: BAZ
1039 TAKTASZADA:
1040 TALIANDOROGD: Vesz
1041 TALLYA: BAZ
1042 TAMASI: TOLNA
1043 TAPIOBICSKE: Pest
1044 TAPIOGYORGYE: Pest
1045 TAPIOSZECSO: Pest
1046 TAPIOSZELE: Pest
1047 TAPOLCA: Veszprem
1048 TAPOLCAFO: Vesz
1049 TARCAL: BAZ
1050 TARNABOD: Heves
1051 TARNAMERA: Heves
1052 TARNAORS: Heves
1053 TARNASZENTMARIA: Heves
1054 TARNAZSADANY: Heves
1055 TARNOK: Pest
1056 TARPA (Mezotarpa): SzSzB
1057 TASS: B-K
1058 TATA: KESZ
1059 TATABANYA: KE
1060 TEGLAS: H&B
1061 TEKES: Barany
1062 TELKIBANYA: BAZ
1063 TELKIBANYA: Borsod Abauj Zemplen
1064 TENGOD: Somogy
1065 TET: GYMS
1066 TETENY
1067 TETETLEN: H&B
1068 TEVEL: Tolna
1069 TIHANY: Vesz, Tiha, Tichý, Tikhiy, Tichá, Tikha
1070 TIMAR: SzSzB
1071 TINNYE: Pest
1072 TISZAADONY: SzSzB
1073 TISZABABOLNA: BAZ
1074 TISZABECS: SzSzB
1075 TISZABERCEL: SzSzB
1076 TISZABEZDED: SzSzB
1077 TISZABO: JNS
1078 TISZABOB: SzSzB
1079 TISZABOG
1080 TISZABURA: JNS
1081 TISZACSECSE: SzSzB
1082 TISZADADA: SzSzB
1083 TISZADERZS: JNS
1084 TISZADOROGMA: BAZ
1085 TISZAESZLAR: SzSzB
1086 TISZAFOLDVAR: JNS
1087 TISZAFURED: JNS
1088 TISZAIGAR: JNS
1089 TISZAKANYAR
1090 TISZAKARAD: BAZ
1091 TISZAKECSKE: BKK
1092 TISZAKERECSENY: SzSzB
1093 TISZAKESZI: BAZ
1094 TISZAKOROD: SzSzB
1095 TISZALADANY: BAZ
1096 TISZALKARAD
1097 TISZALOK: SzSzB
1098 TISZALUC: BAZ
1099 TISZANANA: Heves
1100 TISZAPALKONYA: BAZ
 
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