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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
901 SAJOSZOGED: BAZ
902 SAJOVAMOS: BAZ
903 SAJOVELEZD: BAZ
904 SALGOTARJAN: NOGR
905 SALY: BAZ
906 SAMSONHAZA: NOGR
907 SANDORFALVA: Csong
908 SARBOGRAD: FEJER
909 SARI-DABAS: Pest
910 SARISAP: KESD
911 SARKAD: Bekes? H&B
912 SARKADKERESZTUR: Bekes
913 SARKERESZTUR:Fejer
914 SAROK: Baranya
915 SAROSD:Fejer
916 SAROSPATAK: BoAZ [Sárospatak, PATAK AM BODROG [GER], ŠARIŠSKÝ POTOK [SLOV], PATAK; VÉGARDÓ, BODROGHALÁSZ]
917 SARRETUDVARI: H&B
918 SARVAR: Vas Megye (Vármellék)
919 SASD: BRNY
920 SASTIN
921 SASTIN-STRAZE
922 SASVAR
923 SATA: BAZ
924 SATORALJAUJHELY: BoAZ [Nové Mesto,pod Šiatrom, Ihel, Neustadt am Zeltberg, Sátoralja-Ujhely, Újhely, Ujhely, Széphalom, Satoraijaujhely, Rudabányácska, Slovenské Nové Mesto, Károlyfalva
925 SELLYE: Baranya
926 SELYEB: BAZ
927 SEMJEN: BAZ
928 SENYO: SzSzB
929 SEPSISZENTGORGY
930 SEREGELYES: Fejer
931 SIKLOS: BRNY
932 SIMONTORNYA: TOLNA
933 SIOFOK: VESZD
934 SIROK: Heves
935 SOLT: Pest
936 SOLTVADKERT: BKK
937 SOMBEREK: Baranya
938 SOMLOVASARHELY: Vesz
939 SOMOGSALYI: Heves
940 SOMOGYSZENTPAL: Somogy
941 SOMOGYSZIL: Somogy
942 SOMOGYTUR: Somogy
943 SOMOGYVAMOS: Somogy
944 SOMOGYVAR: Somogy
945 SOPONYA: Fejer
946 SOPRON: GYMS
947 SOSKUT: Pest
948 STRAZE
949 SULYSAP: Pest
950 SUMEG: VESZD
951 SUR: KESD
952 SUTTO: KE
953 SZABADBATTYAN: Feder
954 SZABADSZALLAS: BKK
955 SZABOLCS: SzSzB
956 SZABOLCSVERESMART: SzSzB
957 SZABOLCZBAKA: SzSzB
958 SZADA: Pest
959 SZAJLA: Heves
960 SZAKACSI: BAZ
961 SZAKCS: Tolna
962 SZAKOLY: SzSzB
963 SZALASZEND: BAZ
964 SZALKSZENSARTON: Pest
965 SZALONNA: BAZ
966 SZAMOSBECS: SzSzB
967 SZAMOSKER: SzSzB
968 SZAMOSSALYI: SzSzB
969 SZAMOSSZEG: SzSzB
970 SZANY: GYMS
971 SZARVAS: Bekes
972 SZASZFA: BAZ
973 SZATMAR
974 SZATMARCSEKE: SzSzB
975 SZEBENY: Baranya
976 SZEBENY: Baranya
977 SZECSENKE: NOGR
978 SZECSENY: NÓGR
979 SZEDERKENY: Barany
980 SZEDRES: Tolna
981 SZEGED: CSONG
982 SZEGHALOM: Bekes
983 SZEGI (Bodrogszegi): Zemplen
984 SZEGILONG: BAZ
985 SZEGVAR: Csong
986 SZEKELYSZABAR: Barany
987 SZEKESFEHERVAR: FEJER
988 SZEKESFEHERVER: Fejer
989 SZEKSZARD: TOLNA
990 SZELLO: Barany
991 SZENDRO: BoAZ
992 SZENDROLAD: BAZ
993 SZENTANTALFA: Veszprem
994 SZENTENDRE: PEST
995 SZENTES: CSONG
996 SZENTGAL: Vesz
997 SZENTGOTTHARD: Vas
998 SZENTISTVAN: BAZ
999 SZENTISTVANBAKSA: BAZ
1000 SZENTKATALIN: Barany
 
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