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HUNGARY - THE JEWISH COMMUNITY

Contact information for all synagogues in Hungary [February 2009]

Foundation for Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary, 1137. Budapest, Katona József u. 25. Tel.: (+36-1) 340-5590 Fax: (+36-1) 270-9259 E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it [March 2009]

Synagogues Without Jews: photo. "The earliest Jews who came to Hungary trailed after the legions that were expanding the Roman Empire northward in the third century C.E. Hungarian Jews proceeded to found 38 communities in the medieval period, the most important being Buda and Sopron. Conditions were favorable for the Jews during Turkish rule (1526-1686), but worsened under the Hapsburgs as urban commercial conflict developed into an ingrained hatred. Impelled to move, the Jews were welcomed on the estates of Hungarian nobles such as Counts Esterhazy and Palffy, who protected them and benefited from their economic expertise.

By 1840, Jews numbered more than 300,000. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established a quasi-independent state within the renamed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new Hungarian Parliament soon enacted Jewish emancipation, removing remaining judicial and economic restrictions, allowing Jews to engage in all professions and to settle in all localities. No longer limited to the towns and villages, the Jews-now counting more than 500,000 persons across the country-began to stream into the main cities. The Emancipation period (1867-1914) brought Hungarian Jewry to a crest in political, economic and cultural spheres. Their political position was strengthened in 1895 with the official recognition of Judaism as an equally accepted religion. By 1910 Jews were 5 percent of the population (numbering over 900,000), but comprised about half of the journalists, lawyers and doctors, and nearly 60 percent of the country's merchants.Political emancipation opened the door to higher secular education and adaptation to the outside world. Such radical options engaged Hungarian Jewry in a bitter culture conflict. The Neolog movement favored modifications of the religious ritual as well as cultural and political integration; the Orthodox opposed these adaptations. The conflict came to a head at the government-summoned General Jewish Congress of 1868 and precipitated a major ideological split that plagued the life of Hungarian Jewry until the Holocaust overtook all sides.

Integration and assimilation made deep inroads into the Jewish community. Hungarian Jewry became one of the most assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, with a growing tendency towards apostasy-especially among the upper classes. In contrast, Hasidism swelled in the northeast, in the Szatmar, Bereg (including Munkacs), and Marmaros districts.

Loyalty and patriotic participation by the Jews in the battles of World War I did not prevent overt anti-Semitic riots, known as the "White Terror," in the post-war years. This anti-Semitism was fully manifested in World War II: Nazi troops marched into Hungary in "Operation Margaret" on March 19, 1944. Ghettoization and deportation followed with demonic efficiency. Toiling relentlessly before the advancing Soviet troops, the Nazis managed to murder more than half a million Hungarian Jews by war's end.

Hungarian Jewry now comprises a renewed and active community, with some 80,000 Jews living in Budapest. Nearly 20,000 more live in the rest of the country, particularly in a few of the larger cities. Jewish cultural life has recovered to some extent, with Budapest as the center. The rabbinical seminary trains rabbis for central and east European communities. In addition to the grand Neolog synagogue on Dohany utca and the Orthodox Kazinczy Synagogue, 20 smaller synagogues function in Budapest. Not destroyed by the Germans for lack of time, nearly 100 synagogue buildings still stand in the country. Further, with supplementary municipal funds, former Hungarian Jews living abroad financed the recent restoration of some of the magnificent synagogues still in Jewish use: Szeged, Pecs, and the Dohany in Budapest. These buildings are open to the public as museums, and the large halls serve for prayer only on the Jewish high holidays." [February 2009]

Title Filter     Display # 
# Burial Location
1 ABA: Fejer
2 ABADSZALOK: JNS
3 ABAUJALPAR: BAZ
4 ABAUJKER: BAZ
5 ABAUJSZANTO: BAZ
6 ABAUJVAR: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
7 ABONY: PEST
8 ACS: KE
9 ACSA: Pest
10 ADAND: Somogy
11 ADASZTEVEL: Vesz
12 ADONY: Fejer
13 AGGTELEK: BAZ
14 AJAK: SSB
15 AJKA: Vesz
16 AKASZTO: BK
17 ALACSKA: BAZ
18 ALATTYAN: JNS
19 ALBERTI
20 ALBERTIRSA: Pest
21 ALBIN-MAZSIHISZ: Heves
22 ALDEBRO: Heves
23 ALMAMELLEK: Baranya
24 ALMOSD: H&B
25 ALSODOBSZA: BAZ
26 ALSOMOCSOLAD: Baranya
27 ALSONEMEDI: Pest
28 ALSOORS: Vesz
29 ALSOPETENY: Nograd
30 ALSOREGMEC: BAZ
31 ALSOZSOLCA: BAZ
32 ANARCS
33 ANDORNAKTALYA: Heves
34 APAGY: Somogy
35 APATFALVA: BAZ
36 APC: Heves
37 APOSTAG: Bacs-Kishun
38 ARACS: Vesz
39 ARANYOSAPATI: Somogy
40 ARANYOSGADACS: Baranya
41 ARLO: BAZ
42 AROKTO: BAZ
43 ARYA MEGYE
44 ASVANYRARO: GMS
45 ASZALO: BAZ
46 ASZOD: PEST
47 ASZOFO: Vesz
48 ATANY: Heves
49 ATKAR: Heves
50 ATTALA: Tolna
51 BABOCSA: Somogy
52 BABONYMEGYER: Somogy
53 BACSALMAS: BKK
54 BACSBOKOD: B-K
55 BADACSONYTOMAJ: Vesz
56 BADAJK: Fejer
57 BAG: Pest
58 BAGAMER: H&B
59 BAJA: Bacs-Kishun
60 BAKOCA: Baranya
61 BAKONYBANK: KE
62 BAKONYBEL: Vesz
63 BAKONYCSERNYE: Fejer
64 BAKONYSZENTLASZLO: GMS
65 BAKONYTAMASI: Vesz
66 BAKSA: Baranya
67 BAKTAKEK: BAZ
68 BAKTALORANTHAZA: SzSzB
69 BALASSAGYARMAT: [Balážske, Ďarmoty, Balašské Ďarmoty, Jahrmarkt , Yarmit
70 BALATON: Heves
71 BALATONAKARATTYA: Vesz
72 BALATONBERENCY: Somogy
73 BALATONBOGLAR: SMGY
74 BALATONEDERICS: Vesz
75 BALATONENDRED: Smogy
76 BALATONFOKAJAR: Veszprem
77 BALATONFURED: Veszprem
78 BALATONHENYE: Vesz
79 BALATONKERESZTUR: Somogy
80 BALATONKILITI: Somogy
81 BALATONLELLE
82 BALATONOSZOD: Somogy
83 BALATONSZABADI: Somogy
84 BALATONSZARSZO: Somogy
85 BALATONUDVARI: Vesz
86 BALKANY: Somogy
87 BALLASAGYARMAT: NÓGR
88 BALMAZUJVAROS: H&B
89 BALSA: SSB
90 BALVANYOS: Sogomy
91 BANA: KE
92 BANHOVATI: BAZ
93 BANREVE: BAZ
94 BARABAS: SSB
95 BARABASH
96 BARACSKA: Fejer
97 BARAND: H&B
98 BARCS: SMGY
99 BARDUDVARNOK: former Bárdszerászló, Somogy
100 BASKO: BAZ
 
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