Eastern Europe The IAJGS International Jewish Cemetery Project mission is to catalogue every Jewish burial site throughout the world. Every Jewish cemetery or burial site we know of is listed here by town or city, country, and geographic region is based on current locality designation. http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/index.html Tue, 23 May 2017 10:48:41 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb AKHALTSKA: The Republic of Georgia http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/akhaltska-the-republic-of-georgia.html http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/akhaltska-the-republic-of-georgia.html Akhalts'kha, known as Akhaltsikhe in Georgian, is a heavily Armenian populated area in Georgia, northwest of Armenia. The old Jewish cemetery of Akhaltskha was situated on the left bank next to the Armenian cemetery. Despite the fact that there are practically no Jews left in town, the cemetery itself is surrounded by a high stone fence and is under protection. [February 2009]

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phrases1@aol.com (Ellen Renck) Georgia inc. Abkhasia & S. Ossetia Sat, 28 Feb 2009 20:56:05 +0000
KUTAISI: Republic of Georgia http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/tblisirepublic-of-georgia.html http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/tblisirepublic-of-georgia.html
Official seal of Kutaisi  ქუთაისიancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi, Georgia's second largest city and the capital of the western region of Imereti, 221 km to the west of Tbilisi.Kutaisi is located along both banks of the Rioni River. At an elevation of 125-300 meters (410-984 feet) above sea level, to the east and north-east, Kutaisi is bounded by the Northern Imereti Foothills, to the north by the Samgurali Range, and to the west and south by the Colchis Plain.Former capitol of the ancient Kingdom of Colchis as early as the second millennium BCE. Jason and the Argonauts and their legendary journey to Colchis may have had Kutaisi/Aia as the final destination of the Argonauts and residence of King Aeëtes. From 975 to1122, Kutaisi was the capitol of the united Kingdom of Georgia, and15th century-1810, capitol of the Imeretian Kingdom. In 1508, the city was captured the Ottoman Empire. In 1810 Csarist Russia occupied the land making Kutaisi the guberniya capitol, including much of western Georgia. Before independence in 1991 and the country's economic collapse, Kutaisi was a major industrial center. Today, many have left to work abroad. [February 2009]

 

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administrator@dallasgenealogy.com (Jeri Steele) Georgia inc. Abkhasia & S. Ossetia Sun, 11 Jan 2009 07:17:04 +0000
ONI: Republic of Georgia http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/oni-republic-of-georgia.html http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/oni-republic-of-georgia.html Official seal of Oni

Oni is a town in Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti region, historically and ethnographically, part of Racha, an historic highland province in western Georgia. The town also serves as an administrative center of the Oni district (raioni). Oni is situated in a deep gorge on the left bank of Rioni River, some 830 m above sea level and 210 km northwest of Georgia’s capital Tbilisi.

Oni suffers from earthquakes and avalanches, particularly one at 6.9 on the Richter scale on 29 April 1991. Significant damage to the infrastructure of Oni resulted. Despite a post-Soviet tendency towards emigration, an historic Jewish community remains, Georgia's third largest, after Tbilisi and Kutaisi. The Synagogue built in the 1880s.

 

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phrases1@aol.com (Ellen Renck) Georgia inc. Abkhasia & S. Ossetia Sat, 28 Feb 2009 20:01:46 +0000
TIBLISI: GEORGIA: Caucasus http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/georgia-eurasian-country.html http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/georgia/georgia-eurasian-country.html Flag of Georgia (country) Coat of arms of Georgia (country)Alternate name:Sakartvelo. A transcontinental country in the Caucasus region located at the dividing line between Europe and Asia and bordered by the Russian Federation to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, Armenia to the south, and Turkey to the southwest. Its population, excluding Abkhazia and South Ossetia, is 4.4 million, of whom nearly 84% are ethnic Georgians. Georgian history can be traced back to the ancient Kingdom of Colchis and Iberia, one of the first countries to adopt Christianity as an official religion early in the 4th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia became a part of the Russian Empire. After independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia was forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1922 with independence restored in 1991. See detailed history at Wikipedia.

The city of Tbilisi, founded 1,500 years ago, is the capital of the Republic of Georgia.The first Jews probably arrived in Western Georgia (part of the Byzantine Empire) in the sixth century.With a 2,600-year history in the region, the origin of Georgian Jews, also known as Gurjim or kartveli ebraelebi, is debated with the most popular view beging the first Jews made their way to southern Georgia after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. and exile in Babylon. Others believe that the Jews arrived with the Romans. Some went to Eastern Georgian regions ruled by the Persians where Jews were tolerated unlike the oppressive rule of the Byzantine Empire. From about 750 CE to 1122,  Georgia was an Arab caliphate. From the Middle Ages through the 1850, feudalism existed in Georgia meaning Jews were considered serfs.  Initially protected by feudal lords, the Jews eventually were deprived from their property and oppressed in a later feudal period, but being serfs, they were not forced to convert to Christianity. Jews of Georgia spoke Judeo-Georgian, a dialect of Georgian with Hebrew words. Georgian annexation by the Russian Empire in 1801 ended  previous centuries' of toleration of he Jews. Anti-Semitism in Georgia began,fanned by Tsarist officials and the Russian Orthodox Church. Blood libels occurred between 1850 and 1884. Ashkenazi Russian Jews were settled in Georgia by the Russian government about 1810. Zionism was the first cooperation between the Georgian and Russian Jews. The first Zionist organization in Georgia was founded in Tbilisi in 1897 with the First Congress of Caucasus Zionists held in Tbilisi on August 20, 1901. After 1905, the Russians took a hard line with the Jews.. Georgian Jews shunned the Russian Jews to save themselves. The May 26, 1918 Georgian Republic declaration of independence radically changed these Jewish communities. With  freedom of speech, press, and meeting came renewed involvement in public life, emphasizeing the differences between Zionists and their detractors. A Hebrew school with a Zionist orientation  was founded in 1917.The Red Army squashed the blossoming of freedom in 1921. By 1924., hostile treatment of the Jews of Georgia and a deteriorating economic situation encouraged Zionists to make aliyah to Israel (opposed by the Soviets). During the 1930's, the situation worsened as political suppression increased. During WWII, thousands of Georgian Jews fought in the Soviet Army yet after the war, persecution of the Jews of Georgia by the Soviet authorities continued with many arrests. Synagogues were closed and/or destroyed. The only Jewish cultural institution tolerated in Tblisi was the History and Ethnographic Museum opened in Tbilisi in 1933 and closed in 1951, several years after its director, Aharon Krikheli, was arrested in 1948. Valuable history disappeared. Mass emigration took place in the 1970s when about 30,000 Georgian Jews left for Israel and other countries. Jewish population in Georgia decreased from 28,300 in 1979 to 24,800 in 1989. In 1991, when Georgia declared its independence, thousands of Georgian Jews immigrated to Israel. The 1993 Jewish population was about 14,500. Tbilisi  Jewish population of about 10,000 out of a general population of 1.5 million in 1990 founded the Rachamim Society to provide financial and medical support to needy Jews in Tbilisi, even heating fuel and hot kosher meals. The Society also functions as Chevra Kaddisha. Ariel Levine became Chief Rabbi and director of all Tbilisi Jewish institutions in 1993. In 1998, an Academy for Jewish Studies was established. Jewish Day School, a high school established in 1990, and a Beth Midrash for adults also opened. The Jewish Community sponsors holiday celebration, concerts, and lectures. The Jews of Tbilisi can pray at the Georgian Synagogue confiscated by the USSR in 1923 and used as a theater due to be returned in 1997 or two Ashkenazy synagogues on Kozeveny Street. Prospective return of the building sparked anti-Semitic media reaction. Tbilisi  has a mikvah, kosher butcher, matzoth bakery, and a kosher food store. Tbilisi mayor B.Shoshitaishvili canceled this decision. On January 31, 2001, the Georgian Orthodox Church and the Jewish Community of Georgia signed an agreement aimed at mutual respect and support and vow edto work together to advance democracy, peace and stability. According to the 2002 First General National Census of Georgia there are 3,541 Jews. As of 2004, only about 13,000 Georgian Jews remained in Georgia. In 2008, additional strife with Russia led to problems between the Georgia and Ashkenazi Jewish groups. [February 2009]

 

Old Georgian Jewish Cemeter):

New Georgian Jewish Cemetery: In 2004, dozens Tbilisi Jewish community members took part in maintenance Initiated by the local Jewish community and City Administration. Over a few decades, vandals ave significantly vandalized the graves and monuments on at least two occasions. In both cases, the monuments were re-erected at the government's expense. This time, the main responsibility was assumed by the Jewish community, though the government allotted building materials for this task. Under the leadership of Jewish Center Professor Givi Tzitzulashvili and its Vice-Director Zaira Davarashvili, local Jews were joined by Georgians in cleaning up the cemetery's paths, repairing fences, and righting and cleansing the gravesites. [February 2009]

Ashkenazi Cemetery: [NOTE: This probably is the Ashkenazi Cemetery] Jewish Cemetery at NAVTLUGI: A similar cleanup was anticipated at the Jewish cemetery in Navtlugi, now closed to new burials. Many renowned personalities from the Georgian Jewish Diaspora, including the grandmother of the Israeli premier Ariel Sharon, were buried there. [February 2009]

 

"50 headstones in a Jewish graveyard in the Ortachala district of Tbilisi were destroyed by vandals in late January" (1994?) Source: Dateline, World Jewry, Jan. 1999. World Jewish Congress. According to the newspaper, Georgian investigators have enough evidence that the January 1999 defilement of the Jewish Cemetery of Tbilisi was committed by soldiers of a Russian military unit which is deployed near the spot. However, the Georgian government preferred to hush up the scandal for political reasons. "Droni" No. 37, March 7-8, p. 5, Nana Vasadze, "A hushed up politicalscandal"

The Jewish cemetery in the Dampalo quarter outside Tbilisi was desecrated. Some thirty gravestones were damaged. The background to the incident is unclear. 1998


Evreiski nadpisi v Grizii, XVIII_XIX vv. (Jewish inscriptions in Georgian Republic, 18th - 19th centuries), by N.I. Babalikashvili. Tbilisi, 1971. 36 pages, illustrated, Russian. 72B1125. Notes: list 100 tombstones, 1756-1890, chronology, Hebrew inscriptions analysis and Russian translation.

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administrator@dallasgenealogy.com (Jeri Steele) Georgia inc. Abkhasia & S. Ossetia Sun, 11 Jan 2009 06:33:35 +0000