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NICE: (Côte d'Azur, Provence) PDF Print E-mail
Nice, a city in southern France located on the Mediterranean coast between Marseille and Genoa, is a major tourist center and a leading resort on the French Riviera with a population of 345,000. Settlements in the Nice area date from approximately 400,000 years ago: the site of Terra Amata shows one of the earliest uses of fire and construction of houses. This Mediterranean seaport and major resort city near Monaco and Italy has traditions in the folk music and the dances including the farandole. Vieille Ville (Old Town), the historic part of Nic,e feels like a medieval village with narrow streets curving between old buildings with red-tile roofs, small restaurants and open-markets. The first references to Jewish presence in Provence go back to the third century: Jews in Cimiez (Cémélénum of the Romans). They were intermediaries in the commercial transactions between the Levant and Gaul. The statutes of Nice, enacted in 1341, obliged the Jews to wear a badge under penalty, in case of disobedience, of forfeiting one-half of their garments to the informer, and the other half to the city council. In 1408, the community had a synagogue and a burying ground. Belonging then to Savoy, from the 14th century at the end of the 18th century, the city of Nice has never expelled Jews. They benefited from rather broad privileges, notably as regards the freedom of trade. Nice received a special liberalism from the Dutch, Flemish, German Jewry and even the Oranais (1669). The ghetto of Nice was assigned to the Jews by Duke Amédée in 1430. Still, in 1430, Duke Amédée, while still obliging them to wear their distinctive badge, granted them permission to become money-lenders and pawnbrokers on payment of an annual tribute ("garda Judeorum") of a silver mark. In 1613 the Jews of Nice gave 2,000 ducats, and in 1614 another 400 to Duke Emanuel I, who exempted them from all extraordinary taxation. Special privileges were decreed to foreign Jews in 1650 and 1673; they were authorized to engage in commerce without molestation in the cities of Nice and Villefranche. For twenty-five years, they enjoyed entire liberty in the practice of their religion; and it was forbidden to arrest them on their Sabbath or on festival days. In 1658, the Senate placed the Jews of Nice on an equal footing with those of Turin, but without allowing them a special slaughter-house. It permitted them to own houses for their personal use and to employ Christians provided the latter, with the exception of nurses during the eight days following childbirth, did not actually lodge with them. It forbade them, however, to devote themselves to the study of medicine or jurisprudence, at least, as far as medicine was concerned, without ecclesiastical sanction. In 1687 (Rosh Hodesh 5443), "Parnassim" Joseph Rodrigue and Alexander Sacerdote made a charitable organization (S.B.I.. N). In 1723, the King of Sardinia obliged "the Jewish university", as they called the community, in the ancient ghetto (giudaria). A decree of the Senate in 1733 obliged the Jews to rent jointly all the houses in the ghetto with the privilege of assigning them to the different families according to their requirements. In 1750, they were licensed to extend the ghetto by purchasing land for the erection of dwelling and business houses. Permission was also granted them to go out at night in order to attend to their business affairs; but from sunset to sunrise they were forbidden to follow the trade of huckster, to take articles in pawn, or in any way to traffic in gold or silver. During Holy Week, except during the hours of religious services, they were permitted to leave the ghetto on business and to buy and sell with their shops half closed. In 1750, they abolished the distinctive sign that the Jews had to wear. In 1777 a royal decree authorized David Moses, a Jew, to build a silk-factory near the harbor. Similar favors were granted to individual Jews by the Senate on various occasions in the latter half of the eighteenth century; and as a result of a series of disorders which occurred at a Jewish funeral the Senate forbade, under penalty of fine and imprisonment, the disturbance of the Jews at their religious ceremonies. The arrival of the republican French troops broke the chains of the ghetto. In 1789, it acceded to the petition of the Jews to be released from the obligation of kneeling when taking oaths and permitted them to remain standing with the head covered. The community of Nice was represented in the General Assembly of Notables at Paris by Isaac Samuel Avigdor, one of the secretaries of the Assembly, and in the Grand Sanhedrin by J. L. Avigdor. In 1808, Jews numbered 303. The first town council was constituted in 1849 with three Jewish personalities: MM. Avigdor, Colon et Polonais. The 1904 census enumerated a total population of 93,760 with about 500 Jews. During WWII, the Jewish community of Nice grew considerably due to the arrival of refugees from the occupied zone - the Ashkenazi community of rue Blacas. Some years later, especially after 1962, the massive North African repatriation created confusion of structures, a multiplication of needs, in men and installations. Many achievements satisfy the new communities installed in all corners of the city. Every consistorial team brought its stone to the building of "Judaism". The punctual or sedentary places of worship at the time of holidays of Tishri, are more and more numerous, and renovated to accommodate the faithful. The Grand Synagogue of rue Deloye built in 1886 is renovated and decorated with famous stained glass windows created by Grand Master THÉO TOBIASSE. The Centre Consistorial Michelet knows uninterrupted activity in the small prayerhouse Tchoukriel, the Talmud Torah, has conferences, festivities, and numerous movies. The recent acquisition of the "villa Cirta" in 24, rue Michelet, adjoining the centre, allowed will receive the youth movements of youth even better, to assure lessons, services, and other activities. The Centre Consistorial Marceau also accommodates the Small prayerhouse Viterbo, Merkaz of the young persons, youth movements and Radio Chalom Nitsan (89.3 Mhz). The consistorial family enriched the synagogue Blacas, Ashkenazi ritual, rich in so many memories as well as by the opening of a prayer room in west Nice at 61 Corniche Fleurie. The social activity of the Consistory is entirely assured by the venerable but always youthful and courageous Jewish charitable organization of Nice: a unique institution in France, by its origins, history and acts of Tsedakah to discreetly hear and service of brothers in discomfort. Consistorial information developed programs on Radio Chalom Nitsan on FM 89.3, and edits and broadcasts "Community Letter" in all places of worship and Jewish gathering. The prestigious magazine "NITSAN" is published and distributed during the annual four big dates. The Consistory invests especially in the men. It manages the daily Judaism and prepares the future of our children. On the education plan, the Consistory helps both Jewish schools in a various ways in Nice. Receipts 2001 saw the installation of a secondary school for the 6th to the 3rd, under the aegis of Alliance Universal Israelite in partnership with the Consistory of Nice. Besides, decision was made to open in 2002 a long awaited Jewish secondary school. So, the Jewish population of Nice and the région lavished education of very good quality both in the non-religious subjects and religious. The other novelty is the creation of a big Community Centre right in the center of the city of Nice in partnership between the Consistory and the Social Fund. The complete renovation of the small prayerhouse Tchoukriel du Centre Michelet for a better material and spiritual comfort of its numerous faithful was accomplished. The Consistory remains so open to everything and to all: faithful, associations, other communities of the city or the région. The Consistory has a very particular responsibility for the organization of Jewish life, for birth to entombment. The Consistory maintains close relations with all civil and political authorities of the région for the good of the community. list of community services and synagogues. Sources: Jewish Encyclopedia and others. [January 2008]

L'Est Caucade Cemetery:

Cimitiere du Chateau: Colline du Chateau now barely is a landscaped park with a spectacular panoramic view of sun-drenched rooftops, gleaming yachts in the anchor, and the sweep of the Promenade des Anglais. The cemetery is considered one of the most beautiful resting grounds in the world. [January 2008] history in French. [July 2011]

Limpia Cemetery: From 1658 the Jews of Nice maintained one synagogue, which, with the cemetery, was situated in the quarter of Limpia near the city walls. In 1762, Rabbi Margalid is named spiritual leader. Since his death in 1774, his tomb became a place of pilgrimage in the period of Kippur. [January 2008] 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 20 July 2011 12:41
 
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