SLAVKOV U BRNA: Vyskov, Moravia Print

"May 1998 saw the completed reconstruction of the late Classical synagogue in Slavkov (1858), which is being used as a regional archive and study. The remarkable decorative paintwork has been carefully documented and is planned for renovation." Jewish Community of Brno owns, manages, and renovated the cemetery around 1997. Source From Jewish Encyclopedia: Jewish presence may date from the 12th century since "records seem to point to a tribute paid by the Jews to King Wenzel in 1288, which revenue he presumably turned over to the Teutonic Knights when they obtained possession of the domain. The payment of this tribute was continued to the successors of the Knights, the counts of Kaunitz. A record in the archives of the present congregation of Austerlitz shows that the Jewish tribute for the year 1757 included pepper, ginger, and other spices. The Jewish merchants visited all the Mediterranean ports and dealt extensively in the natural and artificial products of the Orient; and it was for this reason that the tribute mentioned was exacted from them, not only by the local secular and ecclesiastical officials, but even by the papal court itself. The fact that as late as 1798 the Jewish community was ordered, under penalty of legal enforcement, to pay arrears amounting to 503 florins, 3 kreutzers = $200, indicates that this tribute had been exacted from them for a considerable period. The relations existing between Jews and Christians were at all times friendly. During the Hussite movement, which in 1550 had its headquarters at Austerlitz, no change in the friendly relations between Jews and Christians had occurred; at least the movement was not provocative of any ill-feeling toward the Jews. A striking testimony of this friendly feeling even at a much later date is the fact that on the occasion of the closing of the monasteries by Joseph II (1780-90), an abbot deposited his valuables with a poor Jew, who later, on finding with no little difficulty the dwelling of the depositor, returned to him intact all he had received from him. The main occupation of the Jews was trading, and the chief articles sold by them were starch and lime. In connection with this fact it is interesting to note that in Jewish records still extant Austerlitz is called 'Ir Laban' (the White City). The Jewish inhabitants numbered about 445 individuals, occupying thirty-four houses, one of which bears the inscription 'Moses Abraham in the year 1523'. When Maria Theresa issued the edict restricting the number of Jewish families in the province of Moravia to 5,100 (later to 5,400), Austerlitz was permitted to shelter 72 Jewish families. Charitable societies for the sick and needy, and schools, established about that time, are still in existence.According to manuscripts left by R. Josef Weisse, the following ministers officiated at Austerlitz as rabbis; in 1560, R. Löb, a contemporary of R. Moses Isserles, with whom he was in correspondence for some time; in 1570, Jacob, son of Moses, a contemporary of Rabbi Loewe ben Bezaleel; in 1594, Ḥayyim Meling, son of Rabbi Isaac Meling, of Prague; in 1620, Baer Eilenburg; in 1643, Joel Glogau; in 1659, Mordecai; in 1690, Abraham, son of the author of "Bet Yehudah"; in 1703, Nathan Feitel; in 1770, Simḥa Leipnik; in 1780, Elijah Hirsch Istels; in 1790, Jacob Gleiwitz; in 1811, Gerson Buchheim, great-grandfather of Dr. Gustav Karpeles, editor of "Die Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums" at Berlin; and in 1845, Hirsch Duschak, who had received a thorough rabbinical training, and possessed wide secular knowledge. In 1662 and in 1724 Jewish synods held their sessions at Austerlitz, passing the important resolutions... A noteworthy incident took place in 1805, when a French officer of high rank asked the rabbi to summon ten Jews that he might say "kaddish" for a deceased member of his family. This country town east of Brno in the South Moravian Region with a population of 5,900 is widely known for giving its name to the Battle of Austerlitz, which actually occurred some miles to the west of the town. At the beginning of the 13th century, the Teutonic Order built a monastery stronghold whose remains can still be seen today in the vaults of the Austerlitz Palace. The first written testimony about the place date from 1237. The Czech name Slavkov is first documented in 1361 while the German name Austerlitz in 1633 may be a truncation of the Czech Novosedlice (Novosedlicz, Nausedlicz), which means "new settlement",. After the dissolution of the Order, the town became the property of a number of noble owners until in 1509 the local gentry family of Kaunitz assumed control for more than 400 years.[February 2009]

 

US Commission No. CZCE000172

Alternate German name: Austerlitz. Slavkov U Brna is located in Morava-Vyskov at 49°9′11.72″N 16°52′35.37″E , 20 km E of Brno. Cemetery: 2 km N. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.

  • Town: Mayor JUDr. Miloslav Honek, Mestsky Urad, Palackeho namesti 64, 684 01 Slavkov u Brna; tel. 05/941691.
  • Local: Eva Simonikova, Mestsky Urad-Referat Kultury, Palackeho namesti 64, 684 01 Slavkov u Brna; tel. 05/941502.
  • Regional: Dr. Ivo Klenk, Okresni Urad-Referat Kultury, 682 01 Vyskov; tel. 0507/411.Interested: Historicke Muzeum ve Slavkove, dir. Engineer Jan Spatny, statni zamek, 684 01 Slavkov u Brna; tel. 05/941204. Lubomira Kropackova, polni 963, 684 01 Slavkov u B.; tel. 05/941772.
  • Key holder: Jewish Community of Brno, Hybesova 14, 602 00 Brno; tel. 05/336056.
Earliest known Jewish community was 1294?. 1930 Jewish population was 66. Self-standing political community dates 1850-1919 with pogrom of 1905. Uri Herrmann Duschak, 1805-1866, rabbi and Max Karscher, architect, lived here. The landmarked (Nr. 3871 SM) Jewish cemetery originated in 1872 with last known Conservative Jewish burial before 1942. Between fields and woods, the isolated hillside's Czech sign or plaque mentions the Jewish community. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall, a continuous fence, and locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 0.4045 ha. 100-500 stones, all in original location, date from 1735 (transferred from old cemetery in 20th century). The granite, limestone and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, double tombstones or obelisks have Hebrew, German and Czech inscriptions. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no special memorial monuments or structures. Brno Jewish community owns the Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are agricultural and forest. Occasionally, private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred occasionally 1981-91. Individuals or groups of non-Jewish origin, regional/national authorities and Jewish groups within country did restoration done in 1989 and 1991. Now, there is occasional clearing or cleaning by individuals. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion, pollution, vegetation and vandalism. Slight threat: existing and proposed nearby development.
Engineer-Arch Jaroslav Klenovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey on 1 March 1992. Documentation: Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Böhmens (1934); Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries of Bohemia and Moravia (1980). Other exisiting documentation was not used. No site visits or interviews occurred.
Last Updated on Saturday, 23 February 2013 22:29