|NYRSKO: Klatovyd, Bohemia|
map and photo: "The town lies 18 km SW of the town Klatovy on the Úhlava river in the NW part of the Šumava mountains (Bohemian Forest). It probably was a settlement in the 12th century...situated on the trade route to Bavaria (Germany) near the ford across the Úhlava river. A customs office was located here. The first documentation dates from 1327. The lower part of the town, called Dolní Nýrsko (Lower Nýrsko), was a member of the Royal Chamber, and the upper part, Horní Nýrsko (Upper Nýrsko), was a market village under the ownership of the Pajrek castle. In 1558 Horní Nýrsko joined Dolní Nýrsko and both became property of the municipality of Bystřice. The town developed and grew quickly at that time and obtained a lot of rights and privileges from Emperor Rudolph II in 1539. The development continued in the 19th century, when the railroad, a factory for the production of optical instruments, and a shop of cut-glass were founded here.The single-aisled St. Thomas' Church was founded in the upper part of the town before 1352 and was reconstructed in the Baroque style in the 18th century. The tower is situated on the northern side. The presbytery is arched with the cross vault, the nave and the Baroque Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary are enclosed within the dome. The town square and the new parts of the town are in the lower part. There are the Baroque town hall from 1684 on the northern side of the square and the Early-Baroque rectory. A Jewish cemetery is located near the road to the small town Železná Ruda, about 0.5 km behind Nýrsko. It was founded around 1430 and the oldest preserved gravestones are from the 18th century." [February 2009]
Nýrsko is situated in the valley of the river Úhlava (German: Angel) in SW Bohemia. The village began to develop at a ford across the river. At first the settlement consisted of two separate parts: Horní Nýrsko (Oberneuern) belonged to the lords of castle Pajrek (Beiereck or Bayerck), Dolní Nýrsko (Unterneuern) belonged to Bystřice nad Úhlavou (Bistritz an der Angel). Both parts were united in 1558. It is not known when exactly Nýrsko obtained the status of a town, but in 1593 Emperor Rudolf II granted the rights to hold one weekly market and two annual fairs. Until World War II a Jewish community (first mentioned in the 17th century, 4% of the population in 1930) lived here. The synagogue from 1734 was demolished by the Nazis in 1939, but the large Jewish cemetry in the vicinity of Nýrsko still exists. [February 2009]
US Commission No. CZCE000018
Alternate name: Neuern in German. Nyrsko is located in Bohemia, Klatovyd at 49÷18 13.09, 15 km SW of Klatovy and 50 km SSW of Plzen. Cemetery: 1 km SE. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with no Jews.
Earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1930 Jewish population was 139 people. The landmarked Jewish cemetery originated allegedly 1430 but is recorded in the 17th century with last known Conservative Jewish burial before WWII. Desenice (German: Deschenitz), 3 km away, used this site. The isolated rural (agricultural) flat crown of a hill has no sign or marker. Reached by crossing private fields, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and no gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 1600 sq. m.
100-500 stones, legible 1715-20th century, are granite and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, or multi-stone monuments with Hebrew and German inscriptions. Some have metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or structures. Plzen Jewish community owns the Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are agricultural. Occasionally, private visitors and local residents stop. Nazis vandalized the cemetery prior to World War II in 1938 and probably during World War II and 1945-1981. Individuals or groups of non-Jewish origin and Jewish groups within country did restoration in 1990. There is no maintenance. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion, pollution and vegetation.
Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 20 January 1992. Documentation: Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Bohemens 1934; and notes of Statni Zidovske Muzeum about 1960 and histories of the town. The site was not visited. Zdenek Prochazka in 1992 was interviewed.
UPDATE: "The cemetery outside of Nyrsko has been untended and not visited for some time. The desecration, which was only recently discovered, could have been carried out any time betweem 1995 and the present." [15 graves sprayed with swastikas and Nazi SS symbols] Source: Dateline World Jewry, July 2001.
|Last Updated on Saturday, 21 February 2009 21:05|