|NOVY BYDZOV: Hradec Kralove, Bohemia|
cemetery photo. cemetery photo. town website. History with photo: "From the 16th century, there was a large Jewish neighbourhood in the area of the monastery. The only part of this neighbourhood preserved is a newer Synagogue (presently the chapel of the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren) ... In the southern part of the town, opposite the Sokol Hall, there is a well-preserved Jewish cemetery." [February 2009]
Cemetery is open by prior arrangement with the museum, phone: +420 495 493 086. Information Center and Public Library, Husova třída 1370, 504 01 Nový Bydžov, phone: +420 495 493 269. www.czcom.cz/pub/knihovna
Situated near Hradec Králové and Chlumec nad Cidlinou* on the river Cidlina, the town was the property of the Vartemberg family as early as in the year 1325, in 1516 it passed into the hands of the Pernstein family and since 1548 it was in the holding of the Wallensteins. In 1569 Nový Bydžov was exempt by payment from servitude and became the royal dowry town. During the years 1751-1784 it was the royal seat of the newly created Nový Bydžov region which included the Krkonoše Mountains from Vrchlabí through Jilemnice, Nová Paka, Jičín, Hořice, Nový Bydžov, Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Poděbrady as far as Sadská. In 1784 the seat of the region was transferred to Jičín due to its location, but the name of the region remained until 1850. Nový Bydžov, from 1850 until 1960, was the district center. After districts were abolished, it continued as the natural center of the region. Jews are first mentioned in town records of 1514, but the old cemetery, the third largest in the Czech Republic, dates from 1520. The oldest tombstones date from the mid-17th century. A synagogue was mentioned in 1559 (renovated in 1660 and 1838) with ten Jewish families were recorded in 1570. "Between 1656 and 1670 Jews sold salt. After a case of plague, the community was temporarily expelled, some of its member founding communities in surrounding villages. There were 90 Jewish families in Novy Bydzov in 1724. Three years later they were segregated from Christians in a special quarter. Expellees from Prague in 1744 reinforced the community. In 1750 Mendel of Novy Bydzov was burnt at the stake in connection with the emergence of the sect of the "Abrahamites". There were 37 Jewish houses in 1786. A new cemetery was consecrated in 1885 (still in existence). Some of the 838 members of the community in 1893 lived in the 35 surrounding villages. The old Jewish quarter burned in 1903. In 1930 the community numbered 148 (2.1% of the total population). ...During the Holocaust 98 Jews were deported to *Theresienstadt and from there to the death camps in 1942; one only ... returned [although admittedly] more survivors were taken directly the way to western Europe to the DP camps for emigration]]. The collaboration of the local population and of the local government with the Nazi authorities is never mentioned]. Synagogue equipment and documents were transferred to the Central Jewish Museum in Prague. No congregation was reestablished after the Holocaust." Source [February 2009]
NOVY BYDZOV I: US Commission No. CZCE000373
Alternate name: Beu-Bydzow; Neu Bidschow; and Ney-Bydschow in German. Novy Bydzov is located in Bohemia, Hradec Kralove at 50°14′25″N 15°29′31″E , 22 km WNW of Hradec Kralove. Cemetery: old cemetery: 400 meters SSW of the square, access of Revolucni Street. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with no Jews.
Earliest known Jewish community was probably last half of 16th century. 1930 Jewish population was 84. Expulsion of some families reduced the 1536 Jewish community. Peak Jewish population was in second half of 19th century with about 1,200 people. After disastrous conflagration of Jewish quarter in 1901, Jews moved to big towns. A semi-Christian/semi-Judaic clandestine sect called "Israelites" existed in Eern Bohemia in 1740's. Three members of sect were executed and many imprisoned. Rabbi Mendl from Novy Bydzov was burned at the stake in 1750 as the "moral father" of this movement. The Jewish landmarked cemetery originated in 1520 with last known Conservative Jewish burial about 1885. Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Barchucek (Ger: Klein-Barchow and Klein-Barchau), 9 km and 4 km away, used site. The flat urban location has no sign or marker. Reached by crossing a private factory, access is open with permission with a broken masonry wall, a continuous fence, and locking gate. The approximate size of cemetery is now 0.7045 ha.
100-500 stones, all in original locations, are legible 1645 to 19th century. The marble and sandstone flat shaped stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or double tombstones have Hebrew, German and Czech inscriptions. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or structures. Praha Jewish community owns cemetery. Adjacent properties are commercial or industrial. The boundaries are smaller than 1939 because of commercial or industrial development. Rarely, private visitors stop. Vandalism 1945-1981 reduced cemetery. Individuals or groups of non-Jewish origin and local/municipal authorities or Jewish groups within country did restoration occasionally before and in the 1980's but probably not at all now. Moderate threats: uncontrolled access, pollution, vegetation, vandalism and existing nearby development. Slight threat: weather erosion and proposed nearby development.
Vlastmila Hamackova, Zabelska 37, 312 15 plzen, Office tel: 02/231-07-85 and Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 on 20 August 1992. Documentation: Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries of Bohemia and Moravia 1980 and Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Bohemens 1934; and about 1965 notes of Statni Zidovske Muzeum Praha about 1965. Other documentation was inaccessible. No site visits or interviews occurred.
New Cemetery: 1 km W of the square, close to the road to Skochovice. Key holders probably are Technicke Sluzby-Hrbitovni Sprava (Custodian of Cemetery), 504 01 Novy Bydzov; tel. 0448/237-31 or 238-28 and Prague Jewish Congregation. Established in 1885, the last known Conservative Jewish burial was in 1940's. 19th century Chlumec nad Cidlinou, 9 km away, used site. The flat suburban site, separate but near cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open with permission via continuous masonry wall and locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 0.5385 ha.
100 stones, all in original locations, date from 1885-20th century. The marble, granite and sandstone flat shaped stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or multi-stone monuments have Hebrew, German and Czech inscriptions. Some tombstones have portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or structures. Praha Jewish community owns cemetery. Adjacent properties are agricultural and municipal cemetery. Occasionally, private visitors stop. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access, pollution, vegetation, vandalism and proposed nearby development. Slight threat: weather erosion and existing nearby development.
Vlastmila Hamackova, Zabelska 37, 312 15 Plzen, Office tel: 02/231-07-85 and Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 21 August 1992. Documentation: Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Bohemens 1934 and Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries in Bohemia and Moravia 1980. Other documentation was inaccessible. No site visits or interviews occurred.
*Chlumec nad Cidlinou: "It is the town of Klicpera, and Baroque, a town of gardens and ponds, and for many, the town where a large rebellion of farmers was defeated. ...population of about 5,500 which lies on an important road connecting Prague and Hradec Králové. In its long and rich history, several milestones stand out: famous Czech playwright Václav Kliment Klicpera was born here, there is the baroque castle Karlova Koruna (Charles's Crown) which is celebrated in several songs, and, above all, it is the place where the rebellion of Bohemian farmers ended so ingloriously in the second half of the 18th century. ...The Chlumec region was first referred to in the Kosmas Chronicle, while the existence of the town of Chlumec is first documented in writing a century later in 1235. ...the period of the Czech branch of the Šternberk family, who ruled the Chlumec region until it was captured by the Hussites in the first half of the 15th century. Partial destruction of the town at that time fueled the development of the entire agglomeration. Most importantly, a water castle was built here. "Water" in its name was not used by chance as it refers to fish farming, which started to develop in the Chlumec region in the 15th century when the first ponds were set up. Fishing has been a part of the region's history for centuries and today there are still several ponds around Chlumec. At the beginning of the 18th century, a new aristocratic residence was built on the place of the water castle - Karlova Koruna Castle. It remained very well-preserved until today and it is one of the admired architectural treasures of the town. Chlumec offers further places of interest, for example the Gothic-Renaissance Parish Church of St. Voršila from 1536 - 1543 and the Baroque Marian column from 1710. The Town Museum is found in the Loreto chapel, which was originally a school and dormitory of Catholic Church teaching. Visitors can explore the significant places of Chlumec with the help of an education trail aptly called "The Town in Gardens".
|Last Updated on Saturday, 21 February 2009 18:43|