NACHOD: Bohemia Print

photos of graves and Holocaust memorial in new cemetery. This town in the Hradec Králové Region lies in the valley of the river Metuje, in northern parts of the upland Podorlická pahorkatina. Náchod was founded in 14th century by knight Hron of Načeradice, who founded a castle on a strategic place, where local trade road reaches the defile called Branka. The first written documentation dates back to 1254. The former Prime Minister of the Czech Republic Josef Tošovský was born here.[February 2009]



NACHOD I:     US Commission No. CZCE000274

Alternate names: Náchod [Cz], Nachod [Ger]. Nachod is located in Bohemia, Nachod at 50°25' N, 16°10' E, 78 miles ENE of Praha, in Hradec Králové Region, on the Polish border. The old cemetery is located 500 meters SW of the main square, at the corner of Nahamrech and Ceskych Bratri Streets. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 or 25,000-100,000 with than 10 Jews.

  • Town: Mestsky Urad, namesti TGM, 547 01 Nachod; tel. 0441/222-55, mayor's tel. 0441/225-42.
  • Regional: Okresni Urad-Referat Kultury, Raisova ulice, 547 01 Nachod; tel. 0441/201-29 and Zidovska Nabozenska Obec v Praze, Maislova 18, 110 01 Praha 1; tel. 02/231-69-25.
  • Interested: Statni Zidovske Muzeum, Jachymova 3, 110 01 Praha 1; tel. 02/231-06-34 and 231-07-85 and Okresni Muzeum, Zamek, 547 01 Nachod; tel. 0441/232-48 and local historian, Oldrich Safar, Wiesnerova 919, 547 01 Nachod; tel. 0441/220-33.

Earliest known Jewish community was second half of 16th century. Jewish population: 504 (in 1890). 1930 Jewish population was 293. 1660 big fire burned entire ghetto and reduced Jewish population that peaked with 630 people in 1890. Later, Jews moved to big towns. After Holocaust, a scanty religious society existed. The unlandmarked Jewish cemetery originated about 1596. Buried in the cemetery are rabbis and founders of local textile industry with last known Conservative Jewish burial in approximately 1925. The isolated flat urban site has a sign or plaque in Czech ("former cemetery"). Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via no wall, fence, or gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 0.246 ha.

Cemetery has no stones, known mass graves, or structures. The municipality owns property used for recreation (park, playground, and athletic field). Adjacent properties are residential. Private visitors and local residents stop visit the site frequently as a park. Vandalism occurred during World War II (tombstones removed in 1943) and 1945-1981 (rest of cemetery liquidated in the 1950s. No threats.

Martina Chmelikova, Nad Ondrejovam 16, 140 00 Praha 4; tel. 02/69-20-350 and Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 27 August 1992. Documentation: 1. Censuses of 1570, 1890, and 1930; 2. Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Bohemens (1934); 3. Jahrbuch fur die israelische Cultesgemeinden Bohemens (1894-95); 4. Umeleck pamatky Cech, II (1978); 5.Archives of the Prague Jewish Congregation; and 6. 1987-88 letters of Oldrich Safar. Other documentation exists but was inaccessible: No. 13, 14, 60, 61, 62a, 63, and 64 in archives of Jewish Congregation in Praha. Chmelikova visited site in 1992. No interviews.
NACHOD II:     US Commission No. CZCE000275

The new cemetery is located 1100 meters SW of main square, close to railway whistle stop. Key holder: municipal garden or private owner of part of cemetery. The Jewish cemetery originated about 1925 with last known Conservative Jewish burial probably in 1970's. The suburban hillside has no sign, but has Jewish symbols on gate or wall. Reached by crossing a private yard, access is open with permission via a continuous masonry wall, a continuous fence, and locking gate. The approximate size of cemetery before WWII was 0.5068 ha s and is now about 0.12 ha.

20-100 20th century stones, all in original locations, are marble, granite, iron (tin) and wood) tombstones are tablets only with inscriptions of name and dates only. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims but no known mass graves. Within the limits of the site is a pre-burial house that is a remarkable functionalist building. Praha Jewish community owns the site used for Jewish cemetery and agriculture (crops or animal grazing). Adjacent properties are agricultural and residential. The boundaries are smaller than 1939 because of agriculture (unused part of cemetery). Occasionally, private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred during World War II. Local/municipal authorities, Jewish individuals and groups within country did restoration after WWII. Now, individuals occasionally clear or clean. Slight threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion, vegetation and vandalism. See Nachod I for details of survey.

Last Updated on Saturday, 21 February 2009 05:47