|MARIANSKE LAZNE: Cheb, Bohemia|
Surrounded by mountains and parks and noble houses, most of the town's buildings come from the Golden Era in the second half of the 19th century, when many celebrities and top European rulers came to enjoy the curative carbon dioxide springs. In western Bohemia, Jews first settled here in 1820. The Jewish community, numbering about 400 in 1930, reduced to almost none by the time of the Nazi takeover in 1938. The synagogue, destroyed by the Nazis, is now a park. [February 2009]
"Mariánské Lázně is the second largest Czech spa, which is very rich in mineral springs. There are forty springs within the area and one hundred in the immediate vicinity. The land consisting of today's spa belonged to the Premonstrate Monastery of Teplá, whose abbot K. K. Reitenberger launched the construction of the original baths early in the 19th century. Mariánské Lázně was declared a city and by the beginning of the 20th century ranked among the most important spa centers in Europe. The pseudo-Baroque cast-iron Colonnade from 1889 is the main promenade of the spa and an important architectural monument. The water from the Cross, Caroline's and Rudolph's Springs is piped to the Colonnade for the drinking cures. The Singing Fountain, located in front of the Colonnade, also captures the attention of visitors and performs every odd hour to the accompaniment of music, and at 9 and 10 p.m. with a light show. The Ferdinand's, Forest and Ambrose's Springs are among the best known springs in Mariánské Lázně. The spa pavilions were mostly built in the classicist and neo-Renaissance style, while most of the buildings in the spa district of the town bear the imprints of the Art Nouveau style. The Church of the Assumption rises next to the Colonnade. The Russian Church of St. Vladimir and the Anglican Church are located behind the Main Avenue, in the western part of the town." photo and source [February 2009]
Jews of Drmoul (Duerrmaul) with an 1801 baroque synagogue and an ancient cemetery developed the spa amenities of Marienbad (Mariánské Láznē) and were founders of the Marienbad community. [February 2009]
Yizkor Book Historie Židů v Mariánskych Lázních (Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic, 2005)
Encyclopedia of Jewish Life (2001), p. 794: "Marianske Lazne".
US Commission No. CZCE000015
Probably used cemetery at Drmoul before 1875
Alternate names: Mariánské Lázně [Cz], Marienbad [Ger], Mariańskie Łaźnie [Pol]. Marianske Lazne is located in Bohemia, Cheb at 49°58' N, 12°42' E , in W Bohemia, 33 miles WNW of Plzeň (Pilsen), 19 miles SSW of Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad). Cemetery: 2 km SW, in Chebska Street. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.
Town: mayor: Engineer Zbynek Martinek, Bozeny Nemcove 446, 353 01 Marianske Lazne and Mestsky Urad, Ruska 155, 353 01 Marianske Lazne.
Regional: Okresni urad, obdor kultury, Obrnene brigady 30, 350 02 Cheb.Interested: Engineer Richard Svandrlik, VUB, Ruska 487, 353 57 Marianske Lazne and Chebske Muzeum, namesti Jiriho z Podebrad 3, 350 11 Cheb.
Caretaker: Engineer Z. Martinek (see above).
Earliest known Jewish community was 1824. 1930 Jewish population was 405. Two world conferences of Agudath Israel (1937 and 1947) were held here. Yeshiva of Agudath Israel was in Marianske Lazne, 1947-48. Ancestors of American Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise and spa-physicians lived here. The Jewish cemetery originated probably in 1875. Buried in the cemetery were Salomon Kalischer (1843-1925), President of the Union of German Jewish Communities and Professor Theodor Lessing (1872-1933), German philosopher (killed by the Nazis in Marianske Lazne). The Progressive/Reform Jewish community used this still-active and landmarked cemetery. Between fields and woods, the isolated flat suburban land has sign in Czech, German, and English. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous fence and non-locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is about 3000 sq. m.
20-100 stones, few in original locations, date from about 1900 (original tombstones of Marianske Lazne); 17th or 18th century (tombstones of Tachov); and 1714 (tombstone of Lazne Kynzvart)-20th century. The cemetery has special section for tombstones of Tachov. The marble, granite, sandstone and cement flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or multi-stone monuments have Hebrew, German and Czech inscriptions. Some tombstones have iron decorations or lettering and with bronze decorations or lettering. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims but no known mass graves or structures. Plzen Jewish community owns the site used only as a Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are recreational park-woods, agricultural garden, and railway. Frequently, private visitors and local residents stop. Vandalism occurred during World War II and 1945-1981 1945. Local or municipal authorities and Jewish groups within country did work after 1945. Plzen Jewish congregation pays the regular caretaker. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion.
Jiri Fiedler, Brdickova 1916, 155 000 Praha 5, tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on December 20, 1991. Documentation: many journal articles and books. No site visits or interviews occurred.
|Last Updated on Friday, 06 November 2009 20:05|