|LIPNIK NAD BECVOU: Prerov, Moravia|
Photo of cemetery with displaced tombstones along the perimeter wall, p 162 [February 2009]
Židovské památky Lipníku na Bečvou (2000, Olomouc) [February 2009]
Also see Olomouc for early history. [February 2009]
Lipník nad Bečvou is a small town located in the Olomouc Region, in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The nearest larger towns are Přerov and Hranice, approximately ten to twelve kilometers (six to eight miles) distant. The town lies in the vicinity of the castle Helfštýn, at the same level as Moravská brána. The ancient town's extraordinary large square in the shape of the letter L and well-established historical centre has a Renaissance town hall, baroque fountains and Renaissance houses with arcades. Just next to the square, Characteristic example of the colonizing urbanism of the 13th century, the impressive square is decorated with Late Gothic and Renaissance houses from the 15th and 16th centuries (including the Renaissance town hall, later adapted in the Empire style, and two Baroque fountains. The conspicuous dominant feature of the town is the Renaissance belfry [bell tower] of the St. James' church from the early 17th century. An exceptional reminder of the local Jewish community is the Gothic synagogue from the late 15th century, one of the oldest in Moravia and served a numerous Jewish community evidenced two unique cemeteries.Leipnik is also an unusual surname which comes from the name of the town. [February 2009]
Lipník nad Bečvou is an ancient town with 8,500 inhabitants in the center of the Moravian Gate valley at its narrowest point. This ancient trade route is bordered by the Hostýn Hills on one side and on the other side by the Odra Hills. The Bečva river flows through the area. The Moravian Gate connects the fertile Haná Region with Silesia and with Moravian Wallachia. An important trade route called Amber Path passed through it . Gutmann, a former innkeeper whose trade activities earned him much property and made his descendants wealthy" David Gutmann (+1912) and his cousin Max built an almshouse in the place where David´s mother died, a winter Hebrew prayer house on the ground floor, and a Jewish almshouse on the first floor.Source [February 2009]
Site in Czech. [February 2009]
"Walk Around Lipnik nad Becvou" [with photos]: "Jewish School - was located in house no. 627 from 1880 to 1919. Pernstein Lane - formerly Lower Jewish or Temple Lane. A lane at the very periphery of the town core consisting of terraced houses without any backing in a narrow space layout. Up to17 inhabitants lived in such a Jewish house. Gutmann´s Foundation House. Synagogue: The first written reference dates back to 1540. The oldest synagogue in Moravia and after Altnai syngogue in Prague, the second oldest one in the Czech Republic.The main hall is vaulted in the late Gothic style with brick ribs. The architectural similarity with the Gothic Old Town Hall in the nearby town Hranice dating back to 1528 is of particular interest. The wall thickness of the synagogue´s outer northern side is 170 cm. The synagogue in Lipník was rebuilt many times, e.g. in the 70´s of the 19th Century and for the last time in 1948 - 50 when it was transformed to a Hussite Church.This adaptation substantially changed the original appearance of the building. The eastern side entrances were abolished and moved to the northern and southern side walls. Compared with Pernstein Lane the ground level is lower which corresponds with the medieval requirements for synagogue construction. The contemporary interiors are provided with larger than life reliefs of Moses, Jesus and John Hus, the work of Moravian artist Navrátil." [February 2009]
LIPNIK I: (LIPNIK NAD BECVOU) US Commission No. CZCE000121
Earliest known Jewish community was 1540. 1930 Jewish population was 154. The Jewish community was a self-standing political community from 1880-1919. Rabbi Baruch Teomin-Fraenkel, +1828 lived and is buried there. The unlandmarked Jewish cemetery originated in 1567 with last known Conservative Jewish burial in 1883. The flat urban location, separate but near cemeteries, has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 0.5909 ha.
1-20 sandstone and other tombstones date from 19th century and have Hebrew and German inscriptions. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or structures. The municipality owns Jewish cemetery property. Adjacent properties are residential. Occasionally, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred during World War II and 1945-1981. Jewish groups abroad did restoration 1990-2. Moderate threat: vandalism. Slight threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion, pollution, vegetation, existing and proposed nearby development.
Engineer arch. Jaroslav Klenovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey on 1.3.1992. Documentation: Gold, Herman. Other exisiting documentation was not used. No interviews or visit.
The new cemetery is located 0.4 km S, Zahradni-Str. The Jewish cemetery originated in 1883. Rabbi Hillel is buried in the cemetery with last known Conservative Jewish burial in 1950s. Landmark: Nr. 3180 N.M. The flat urban location, separate but near cemeteries, has a sign or plaque in Czech mentioning the Jewish Community. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 0.6625 ha.
500-5000 stones, most in original locations, date from 1883-20th century. The marble, granite, limestone and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, multi-stone monuments, or obelisks have Hebrew, German and Czech inscriptions. Some tombstones have iron decorations or lettering, with bronze decorations or lettering and/or metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Jewish soldiers but no known mass graves. Within the limits of the site is a pre-burial house ruin. The municipality owns Jewish cemetery property. Adjacent properties are residential. Occasionally, Jewish or non-Jewish private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred occasionally 1945-1991. Local/municipal authorities, Jewish individuals abroad, Jewish groups within country and abroad did restoration in 1990-1. Now, authorities occasionally clean or clear. Moderate threat: weather erosion. Slight threat: uncontrolled access, pollution, vegetation and vandalism.
Engineer arch. Jaroslav Klenovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey on 1.3.1992. Documentation: Gold, Herman. Other documentation exists but not used. Klenovsky visited.
|Last Updated on Saturday, 21 February 2009 21:43|