|KROMERIZ: Zlin, Moravia|
Alternate names: Kroměříž [Cz], Kremsier [Ger]."ˈkromɲɛr̝iːʃ] in Czech; German: Kremsier, Polish: Kromieryż) . 49° 17′ 51.43″ N 17° 23′ 47.58″ E . On the Morava River, northeast of Brno, the Jewish community (one of the oldest in Europe) dated from 1322. 783 was the Jewish population in 1880. The 1930 Jewish population of 382 was about 12% of the total population. The Jews were deported in 1942. The synagogue contents were sent the the Central Jewish Museum in Prague.[February 2009] town image [February 2009]
The town's main landmark is the Baroque Kroměříž Bishop's Palace, where some scenes from Amadeus and Immortal Beloved were filmed. The adjacent Lustgarten, or Pleasure Park, is one of the World Heritage Sites.
The town was founded in 1260 by Bruno ze Schauenburku, bishop of Olomouc. Bruno chose Kroměříž to become his see and he also made his castle the centre of his dominion which consisted of more than 60 vassals from the whole of Moravia. Kroměříž is referred to as a market village in a document by Přemysl Otakar II from 1256, but in 1266 it is called a town. Bruno also established what was to become the famous Archbishops Palace. The town was badly damaged in Thirty Years' War, was plundered twice by Swedish troops (1643 and 1645), after this Black Death came. Bishop Karel II. z Lichtenštejna rebuilt the city and palace after the war. Constitutive Imperial Congress was sitting in Kroměříž in 1848. Wikipedia. [February 2009]
In 1322 the bishop of Olomouc (Olmuetz) permitted one Jew to settle in the town under the protection of the bishop. A Jewish that grew up remained under the protection of successive bishops until 1848. The synagogue and community house displayed the episcopal coat of arms with a cross and cardinal's hat. In 1642, during the Thirty Years' War, the community was destroyed by the Swedes. Kromeriz absorbed many refugees from the Chmielnicki massacres (1648) as well as eight families expelled from Vienna (1670). 1676 Jewish population was 27 Jewish families. In 1689 Kromeriz, the most important and most affluent Moravian community after *Mikulov (Nikolsburg), until 1697 was the seat of country rabbinate. In the 18th century, many left the impoverished community. Potracted legal proceedings begun in 1785 resulted in abandoning the old cemetery in 1882. The new cemetery opened in 1850. A *blood libel" caused unrest in the town in 1889 and 1896. In 1910 a new synagogue was dedicated. The *Familiants Law" recorded 106 families (546 persons) in 1829; 783 Jews in 1880, 611 in 1900, 390 in 1921, and in 1930 382 (12% of the total). After 1939 Nazi occupation, the Czech population paid little attention to the 1940 antisemitic laws. The Nazis attempted to blow up the synagogue; The community was deported in 1942. The synagogue content was sent to the Central Jewish Museum in Prague. After the Holocaust a small congregation was reestablished, affiliated tovKyjov. A total of 268 Jews perished in the Holocaust. A torah stolen from this town that was rescued in the Westminster Synagogue project now is held in Temple Sinai of North Miami Beach, Florida. Joseph Weiss and Emanuel *Baumgarten were natives of Kromeriz. Among rabbis there were Menahem Mendel *Krochmal (1636-42), Issachar Berush *Eskeles(1710-19), and the historian Adolf *Frankl-Gruen (1877-1911). Kroměříž also is the birthplace of historian Max Grünfeld (1856-1933, Brno), writer Emanuel Baumgarten (1828-1908, Vienna) and art historian Adolf Donath (1876-1937, Praha). The Jewish Community of Brno has authority over this town. [February 2014]
Source "The Jewish quarter is situated in the southern part of the town centre inside the fortifications covering the area of 3.7 acres around Moravcova and Tylova streets. Out of the initial 36 houses 31 have survived, most of them built during a generous redevelopment at the end of the 17th century supported by the then-magistrates. The Jewish council house at No. 259 (Fig.1) is an early baroque construction built in 1687-1688 according to the design of the famous architect G. P. Tencalla. A uniquely preserved part of the separation wall from 1701 can be found under the parish church of the Virgin Mary near Tylova Street. The old synagogue from 1693-1694 was torn down in 1921. The new synagogue built in 1909-1910 by the architect Jakob Gartner was blown up by Nazis in 1942. A memorial commemorating the uprooting of the Jewish community and the destruction of the synagogue, by the sculptor Olbram Zoubek (Fig.2) was unveiled at the site near the Kroměříž Community Centre in 1994." [February 2014] photo of part of the wall. [Feb 2014]
D. Kaufmann, Die letzte Vertreibung der Juden aus Wien... (1889), 181-5; A. Frankl-Gruen, Geschichte der Juden in Kremsier, 3 vols. (1896-1901); H. Gold (ed.), Juden und Judengemeinden Maehrens (1929), 295-300; I. Halpern, Takkanot Medinat Mehrin (1952), 128-35, 148-57; W. Mueller, Urkundliche Beitraege (1903), 58-60; PK.
KROMERIZ: (I) US Commission No. CZCE000015
Alternate name: Kromenz, Kresier (German). Town is in Morava-Kromeriz at 49º17 17º22, 335 miles ENE of Brno (Brünn), 17 miles SE of Prostějov (Prossnitz). Old Cemetery: 0.8 km S, Dykova Str. Present population is 25,000-100,000 with fewer than 10 Jews.
Earliest known Jewish community was in 1322. 1930 Jewish population was 382. A pogrom occurred in 1742. Noteworthy individuals: Dr. Adolf Frankl-Grun, rabbi, 1847-1916; Emanuel Baumgarten, publicist; Max Grunfeld, historian; and Adolf Donath, art historian. The unlandmarked Jewish cemetery originated in 1849 with last known Conservative Jewish burial in 1927. The isolated urban site has no sign. Reached by turning directly off a public road (built), access is open with permission via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate. Size of cemetery before and after WWII is 0.2382 ha. No stones are visible except for bones moved from the oldest cemetery. The municipality owns the property used as the police station. Adjacent properties are residential. Vandalism occurred during World War II, continuing until about 1990.
Engineer arch. Jaroslav Klenovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey on 10 March 1992. Documentation: 1. Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Mahrens (1928) and 2. Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries in Bohemia and Moravia (1980). Other documentation exists. Klenovsky visited site in November 199 but conducted no interviews.
The unlandmarked Jewish cemetery originated in 1927 with last known Jewish burial in 1980s. The flat suburban location, part of a municipal cemetery, has no sign. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and non-locking gate. Size of cemetery before WWII: 0.6872 ha. Present size of cemetery is about 0.1 ha.
1-20 gravestones, in original location with none toppled or broken, date from after 1927. The marble and finely smoothed and inscribed stones have Hebrew, German, and/or Czech inscriptions. Some have iron decorations or lettering or bronze decorations or lettering, The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims but no known mass graves. There is a pre-burial house. The municipality owns the property used for Jewish cemetery and industrial or commercial use. Adjacent properties are residential and cemetery. Compared to 1939, cemetery boundaries are smaller because of town cemetery. Occasionally, organized individual tours stop. Vandalism occurred during World War II and between 1945 and ten years ago. Jewish groups within country cleaned stones in 1960s and 1970s. Current care is occasional clearing or cleaning by authorities. Security (uncontrolled access), pollution, incompatible development (planned or proposed), and vandalism are slight threats. Vegetation overgrowth seasonally prevents access.
Engineer Arch Jaroslav Klenovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey on 18 February 1992. Documentation: 1. Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Mahrens (1928) and 2. Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries in Bohemia and Moravia (1980). Other documentation exists but was too old. Klenovsky visited site in September 1991. No interviews.
Source: "The new Jewish cemetery is situated within the area of the city's burial grounds in Vážanská Street, south of the Velké Square. It was founded in 1924 and almost destroyed by Nazis. Only 5 tombstones have been preserved. A memorial to the victims of the holocaust was unveiled in the cemetery in 1962. The cemetery also holds the relics of the older Jewish cemetery from 1715-1927 in Nábělkova Street, which were relocated in 1997. A hall of farewell in the shape of a small antique temple from 1927-1928 was completely rebuilt into a hall of mourning. The Jewish cemetery is open to public at all times as a part of the city's burial grounds." [Feb 2014]
photo. [Feb 2014]
|Last Updated on Saturday, 15 February 2014 11:56|