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JEMNICE: Trebic, Vysočina, Moravia PDF Print E-mail

Alternate names: Jemnice and Jamnitz. 49°19' N 14°00' E, 57.2 miles SSW of Praha.    (2005 est. population: 4,340).

website in Czech with photo: landmarked and freely accessible. "The first documentation of Jews is from 1336, one of the oldest communities in Czech Republic. The Jewish Quarter is located in the SE sector of the urban core at the castle, now ulice Zámecká a U templu. Of the original 31 houses still standing are 22, some of medieval layout including the municipal building with rabbinical Castle School No. 27 and No. 160.V. After1824, four houses were demolished and the entire ghetto burned in 1832. Synagogue built in 1649 was demolished by the Nazis in 1942. Today the site has a 2006 memorial. Cemetery in Údolní ulici, 300 m S of the square, was probably dates from the 14th century. The 2421 m2 has about 400 visible tombstones, the oldest legible dates from 1676. The Nazis took tombstones to pave streets in the city. 1991-4 restoration. Mortuary was demolished between 1955 and 1956. The cemetery is fenced with wrought-iron entrance gate." [Sep 2011]

Jewish Community of Brno [? Federation] owns, manages, and renovated the cemetery around 1997. [February 2009]

in S.W. Moravia. The Jewish community is mentioned first in 1336 in connection with its sufferings during the Armleder massacres. A gravestone from 1362 is extant.  In 1369 the sale of property by a Jew was recorded. In 1530, Jews are mentioned as house owners. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, real estate transaction documents between Jews and gentiles are numerous. A 1648 synagogue burned down in 1752. Jemnice had nine Jewish tailors in 1755. Because he community could not meet tax obligations in 1775, the local lord excused them. In 1812, a German-language elementary school was used as a governmental school until 1918. An 1832 fire destroyed all 28 houses of the Jewish quarter. The former Jewish district in the southern part of the town center connects Liberty square and Havlíček square. Riots in 1866 resulted when the Jews were accused of actively supporting the Prussians. Jewish population: 24 families living in 11 houses in 1666 increasing in 1754 from 30 to 45 (due to Familiants Law); 263 persons (nearly 20% of the total population) in 1781; and 325 persons in 1830; 305 in 1857; 200 in 1869;102 in 1910;84 in 1921; and 52 in 1930 (1.5% of the total). In 1942 Nazis deported the community to extermination camps. Nazis killed 53 local Jews, pulled down the synagogue and destroyed the Jewish cemetery. A memorial to Holocaust victims was unveiled in Jemnice in 2006. The synagogue appertunances were transferred to the Central Jewish Museum in Prague. [February 2009]

REFERENCES

A. Marmorstein, in: Mitteilungen zur juedischen Volkskunde, 13 (1910), 28–32.

R. Hruschka and B. Wachstein, in: H. Gold (ed.), Die Juden und Judengemeinden Maehrens… (1929), 251–66.

Encyclopedia Judaica

Tourist web site with information [February 2009]

 

US Commission No. CZCE000095

Alternate name: Jamnitz in German. Town is in Morava-Trebic at 49º02 15º34, 45 km S of Jihlava. Cemetery is located at 0.3 km S on Udolni Str. Present population is 5000-25, with fewer than 10 Jews.

  • Town: Mayor Dr. Jiri Triska, Mestsky Urad, Valentova 675, 675 31 Jemnice; tel. 0617/933481.
  • Regional: PhDr. Nina Jasova, Okresni Urad-Referat Kultury, 674 01 Trebic; tel. 0618/775.
  • Interested: Zapadormoravske Muzeum, dir. RNDr. Stanislav Houzar, zamek, 674 01 Trebic; tel. 0618/21518 and Dr. Jiri Triska, V zahradach, 675 31 Jemnice; tel. 0617/9333397.

Earliest known Jewish community dates from 1336. 1930 Jewish population was 52. Noteworthy historical events were a big fire in 1832 and 1866 pogrom. Jakub Juda Lob Askenazy, 17th century rabbi, lived here. The landmarked cemetery (# 2757 S.M.) probably originated in the 14th century with last known Conservative burial in 1942. The isolated suburban hillside has Czech sign mentioning the Jewish Community. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate. Size of cemetery before and after WWII: 0.2449 ha.

100-500 gravestones, in original location and 20-100 not with 25%-50% toppled or broken, date from 1676-20th century. Some stones removed from the cemetery are in a museum of conservation. The marble, granite, and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or obelisks, some with traces of painting on their surfaces, have Hebrew and German inscriptions. The cemetery contains no known mass graves. Brno Jewish community owns Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are recreational and residential. Occasionally, private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred during World War II and between 1945 and ten years ago. Local non-Jewish residents, local or municipal authorities, and Jewish groups within country re-erected stones, cleared vegetation, and fixed wall in 1991. Current care: occasional clearing or cleaning by authorities. Within the limits of the cemetery is a pre-burial house ruin. Security (uncontrolled access), pollution, vandalism, and incompatible nearby development are slight threats. Weather erosion and vegetation are moderate threats. Vegetation overgrowth and water drainage are seasonal problems preventing access.

Engineer Arch. Jaroslav Kelnovsky, Zebetinska 13, 623 00 Brno; tel. 0 completed survey form on 1 March 1992. Documentation: Gold book and J. Herman: Jewish Cemeteries in Bohemia and Moravia (1980). Other documentation exists but was too old. The site was visited in December 1991. No interviews.

Last Updated on Friday, 07 October 2011 11:10
 
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