|HRADEC KRALOVE: Bohemia|
The synagogue [map] was consecrated in 1905 with a Jewish population about 300 persons. In 1930 over 400 Jews lived in the town but by the end of 1942, all the Jews had been deported to death camps. Very few survived.[February 2009]
German: Königgrätz; meaning Castle of the Queen) is a city in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. The city's economy is based on food-processing technology, photochemical, and electronics manufacture. Traditional industries include musical instrument manufacturing (best known being PETROF pianos). The University of Hradec Králové is here with the medical school of Charles University in Prague with a pharmacyl department. Situated at the center of a very fertile region called the Golden Road on the confluence of Elbe and Orlice with many historical and architecturally interesting buildings, the cathedral was founded in 1303 by Elizabeth, wife of Wenceslaus II, and the Church of St. John, built in 1710 on the ruins of the old castle. During 1920s and 1930s the city grew rapidly with modern architecture (unique architecture of Josef Gočár) that gave Hradec Králové the name: Salon of the Republic. The original name of Hradec Králové, one of the oldest settlements in the Czech Republic, was Hradec (the Castle); Králové (of the queen) was affixed as one of the dowry towns of the queen of Wenceslaus II, Elizabeth of Poland, who lived here for thirty years. It remained a dower town until 1620. Hradec Králové was the first of the towns to declare for the national cause during the Hussite Wars. After the Battle of White Mountain (1620), a large part of the Protestant population left. In 1639 the town was occupied for eight months by the Swedes. Several churches and convents were pulled down to make way for the fortifications erected under Joseph II. The fortress was dismantled in 1884. The decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War took place on July 3, 1866 near Hradec Králové. Neighborhoods: Březhrad, Kukleny, Malšova Lhota, Malšovice, Moravské Předměstí, Nový Hradec Králové, Piletice, Plačice, Plácky (Platzka), Plotiště nad Labem, Pouchov, Pražské Předměstí, Roudnička, Rusek, Slatina, Slezské Předměstí, Svinary, Svobodné Dvory, Třebeš, Věkoše. Wikipedia [February 2009]
US Commission No. CZCE000234
Earliest known Jewish community was first half of 16th century. 1930 Jewish population was 425. Jewish community was banished in 1542 and again in 1652. Modern congregation was founded in 1860. Native town of Dagan brothers Avigdor (1912, resident of Jerusalem, (writer and poet) and Gabriel (1922, resident of Tel Aviv); native town of literary historian Pavel Fraenkl (1904-1985) and writer Ota Dub (1909-1987). The unlandmarked cemetery originated in 1877 with last known Reform/Progressive Jewish burial in the 1970s. The flat suburban site, separate but near other cemeteries, has no sign. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open via a broken masonry wall and non-locking gate. Size of cemetery before and after WWII is 0.2991 ha.
100-500 gravestones, 1-20 not in original locations and 50%-75% toppled or broken, date from after 1876-20th century Some stones removed from the cemetery are in a museum of conservation. The cemetery is divided into special sections for children and refugees. The marble, granite, limestone, and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, or multi-stone monuments with Hebrew, German and/or Czech inscriptions. Some have metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims but no known mass graves. Within the limits of the cemetery is a pre-burial house with distinctive features. Prague Jewish community owns Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are residential and military/municipal cemeteries. Frequently, private and local residents stop. Vandalism occurred between 1945 and ten years ago and frequently in the last ten years. No care or maintenance. Security (uncontrolled access) and vandalism are very serious threats. Weather erosion is a slight threat. Pollution is a moderate threat. Vegetation overgrowth seasonally prevents access.
Martina Chmelikova, Nad Ondrejovem 16, 140 00 Praha 4; tel. 02/69-20-350 and Jiri Fiedler, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 24 June 1992. Documentation: Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries of Bohemia and Moravia(1980); and Hugo Gold: Die Juden and Judengemeinden Bohemens (1934). Other documentation exists but was inaccessible: No. 14, 53, 60, 61, 62 in Archives of Prague Jewish Congregation. M. Chmelikova, who conducted no interviews, visited site in June 1992.
|Last Updated on Friday, 20 February 2009 19:23|