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town images [February 2009]

Chomutov regional information in NW Bohemia. [February 2009]

The first recorded mention of Jews is their death as martyrs in 1421 when threatened with forcible baptism by the Hussites. Between 1468 and 1526, fifty Jewish names appear as house owners in the municipal records. In 1517, Jews expelled from the town unsuccessfully requested readmission in 1635 and 1659. After 1848, developing industry attracted Jews from surrounding communities to Chomutov. From 1860 to 1869, the Chomutov Jews, who opened a prayer room, had conflict with their "mother community" in Udlice that repeatedly attempted to close it. 100 families living in Chomutov in 1873 officially formed a Jewish community with a synagogue consecrated in 1876 and destroyed by the Nazis. Most of the neighboring communities in 1893 affiliated with Chomutov that counted 911 members in 14 locations. The community numbered 444 in 1930 (1.3% of the total population). Chomutov was "judenrein" on September 23, 1938. A small congregation administered by the Usti nad Labem community reestablished after World War II. Jewish poet Max Fleischer, a native of Chomutov (1880–1941), died in a concentration camp. [February 2009]

REFERENCES:

Encyclopedia Judaica

H. Gold (ed.), Juden und Judengemeinden Boehmens in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart (1934), 299–304

J. Fiedler, Jewish Sights of Bohemia and Moravia (1991), 172.

R. Wenisch, in: JGGJČ, 7 (1935), 37–108; idem, in: Zeitschrift fuer die Geschichte der Juden in der čechoslovakischen Republik, 1 (1930/31), 91–8, 195–7

 

US Commission No. CE00000220

Alternate name: Komotau in German. Used cemetery at Uldice before 1871 and also used cemeteries at BILENCE and HORENICE before 1892. Chomutov is located in Bohemia, Chomutov at 50º07' 13º06', in NW Bohemia, 22 miles SW of Teplice (Teplitz).. Cemetery: 0.5 km W. Present town population is 25,000-100,000 with probably than 10 Jews.

  • Town: Mestsky Urad, 430 01 Chomutov.
  • Regional: Jewish congregation, ZNO, Moskevska 26, 400 01 Usti nad Labem and Okresni Urad, Referat Kultury, 430 01 Chomutov.
  • Interested: Okresni Muzeum (Dr. Samsulova), Palackeho 86, 430 01 Chomutov; tel. 0396/5993 AND Statni Zidovske Muzeum, Jachymova 3, 110 01 Praha; tel. 02/231/0634. Vojtech Brett, Kostnicka 4077, 430 03 Chomutov.

Earliest known Jewish community was before 1421. Jewish population: 562 (in 1880), 444 (in 1930). Medieval Jewish community was massacred by Hussites in 1421. Later, community was banished in 1517. Modern congregation was constituted about 1860. Post-war congregation (new inhabitants for E-596 members in 1946! ceased to exist by dying out and moving out after 1975) [sic]. Native town of Fleischer brothers: Max (1880-1941)-poet, Viktor (1882-1951)-writer and playwright. The Jewish cemetery originated in 1892 with last known Conservative or Progressive/Reform Jewish burial probably before 1975. Jirkov (Ger.: Gorkau) 5 km used this unlandmarked cemetery. The flat suburban location, separate but near cemeteries, has no sign, but has Jewish symbols on gate or wall. The gate was created as a sign or plaque in Czech shaped like a stylized menorah. Star of David was placed near a lock. The same star (with diameter about 2 meters) is on the ground in paving stones in front of a memorial. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate that is very easy to enter. The approximate size of cemetery before WWII was about 0.25 ha s and is now 2,500-sq. m.

None of the granite stones are in original locations. The cemetery contains special memorial monuments to Holocaust victims, no known mass graves or structures, and no special sections. Usti nad Labem Jewish community owns the Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are commercial or industrial and agricultural. Occasionally, organized Jewish tours or pilgrimage groups (seldom), private visitors and local residents stop. Vandalism occurred prior to World War II (1938 by Nazis), during World War II and occasionally 1981-91 (Tombstones sold (see 41a-sic) and ceremonial hall pulled down by Jewish congregation after 1982). Local/municipal authorities did work in 1986-1987. Now, authorities occasionally clean or clear. Moderate threat: existing nearby development. Slight threat: uncontrolled access, weather erosion and pollution.

Ladislav Mertl, Mgr. of Geography, Kubanske namesti 1322/17, 100 00 Praha 10; tel. 02/743213 AND Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/553340 completed survey on May 17, 1992 using Heimatskunde der politische Bezirk Komotau, 1898; Hugo Gold: Die Juden... Bohemenslll, 1934; Josef Muhlberger: Geschichte der deutschen Literatur in Bohmen, 1981; letters of V.Brett (above), 1982; J Herman: Jewish Cemeteries in Bohemia and Moravia, Prague 1980; census 1930,1991. The site was not visited.

Last Updated on Friday, 13 February 2009 11:58
 
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